A 2-3 Tree is a specific form of a B tree. A 2-3 tree is a search tree. However, it is very different from a binary search tree.

2-3 tree is a tree data structure in which every internal node (non-leaf node) has either one data element and two children or two data elements and three children. If a node contains one data element leftVal, it has two subtrees (children) namely left and middle. Whereas if a node contains two data elements leftVal and rightVal, it has three subtrees namely left, middle and right.

The main advantage with 2-3 trees is that it is balanced in nature as opposed to a binary search tree whose height in the worst case can be O(n). Due to this, the worst case time-complexity of operations such as search, insertion and deletion is O(Log(n)) as the height of a 2-3 tree is O(Log(n)).

Properties of a 2-3 Tree:

  1.  each node has either one value or two value
  2. a node with one value is either a leaf node or has exactly two children (non-null). Values in left subtree < value in node < values in right subtree
  3. a node with two values is either a leaf node or has exactly three children (non-null). Values in left subtree < first value in node < values in middle subtree < second value in node < value in right subtree.
  4. all leaf nodes are at the same level of the tree


The insertion algorithm into a two-three tree is quite different from the insertion algorithm into a binary search tree. In a two-three tree, the algorithm will be as follows:

  1. If the tree is empty, create a node and put value into the node
  2. Otherwise find the leaf node where the value belongs.
  3. If the leaf node has only one value, put the new value into the node 
  4. If the leaf node has more than two values, split the node and promote the median of the three values to parent.
  5. If the parent then has three values, continue to split and promote, forming a new root node if necessary


 Insert 50


 Insert 30


Insert 10

Insert 70 and 60

Deleting node from 2-3 Tree






Final Tree