The Approaches to Production and Operation Management is the management of conversion of input to desired output. The responsible executive for managing that conversion process is designated as production/operation manager or works manager.
Approaches to Production and Operation Management
In doing so, he uses various approaches from listed three views of management.
- Classical Management
- Behavioural Management
- Modelling Management.
1. Classical Management
The classical management can be considered as traditional approach of management. It generally focuses on efficiency of production core differencing planning function and working functions. It gives two theories
- Scientific management
- Process management/Administrative management/ Functional approach
Scientific Management: The scientific management focuses on the economic efficiency of the production core of the organization. It views organization as close system, less effected by external environment thus less emphasis is given to human factor and interaction of organization with external environment.
The efficiency of production core is calculated as Output/Input ratio. It assumes that this ratio can be increased by economic motivation of production core i.e. labour.
Division of labour, Job analysis, Separation of planning and doing function etc are the focus of scientific managemen.
Process Management: The process management views management as continuous process of planning, organizing and controlling
- Planning includes all activities that establish a fiuture course of action
- Organizing includes all activities that establish a structure of task and authority.
- Controlling includes activities that ensure actual performance in accordance with planned performance.
2. Behavioural Management
The behavioural management evolved in 1920 emphasis on human it is found that changes in work environment affected output more in compared to physical changes. This theory highlight that human behaviour in their work environment are extremely complex.
Leadership, motivation, communication, interpersonal relationship and personal attitude affect it. Thus, the understanding of employee behaviour is critical concern to operation manager.
3. Modelling Management
This is the one of the three primary theories of management. This theory deals with quantities techniques consisting of .
- Decision-making systems
- Mathematical modelling
The decision-making theory considers decision making as primary purpose of management. The mathematical modelling focuses on use or mathematical approach to solve the problems.
For a particular problem. the variables are expressed mathematically and suitable model is use to demonstrate different outcomes that would result from the vario possible managerial choices.
By the study of above mentioned clasical management, behavioura management and modelling management, the new role of production manager is to apply all these three theories for conversion of inputs to desired output. This is shown in figure below.
Each component of above Figure focuses on the basic role or function of production manager. The activities covered by each component as a function of operations management are described in this post: Function of Operation Management.