The database approach has some very features Characteristics of Database Management System which is discussed in detail below:

Characteristics of Database Management System

1. Structured and Described Data

The fundamental feature of the database approach is that the database system does not only contain the data but also the complete definition and description of these data.

These descriptions are basic details about the extent, the structure, the type, and the format of all data and, additionally, the relationship between the data. This kind of stored data is called metadata ("data about data").

2. Separation of Data and Applications

Application software does not need any knowledge about physical data storage like encoding, format, storage place, etc.

It only communicates with the management system of a database (DBMS) via a standardized interface with the help of a standardized language like SQL.

The access to the data and the metadata is entirely done by the DBMS. In this way, all the applications can be totally separated from the data.

3. Data Integrity

Data integrity is a byword for the quality and the reliability of the data of a database system.

In a broader sense of data, integrity includes also the protection of the database from unauthorized access (confidentiality) and unauthorized changes. Data reflect facts of the real world.

4. Transactions

A transaction is a bundle of actions which are done within a database to bring it from one consistent state to a new consistent state. In between the data are inevitably inconsistent.

A transaction is atomic which means that it cannot be divided up any further. Within a transaction, all or none of the actions need to be carried out.

Doing only a part of the actions would lead to an inconsistent database state.

Example: One example of a transaction is the transfer of an amount of money from one bank account to another.

5. Data Persistence

Data persistence means that in a DBMS all data is maintained as long as it is not deleted explicitly. The life span of data needs to be determined directly or indirectly by the user and must not be dependent on system features.

Additionally, data once stored in a database must not be lost. Changes of a database which are done by a transaction are persistent. When a transaction is finished even a system crash cannot put the data in danger.