- Carriage by land: Carriage service that is provided through land. E.g. truck, bus, train, cars, ropeway, cable car, trolley etc.
- Carriage by sea: Carriage that run water like, ship, boat they are the carriages by sea.
- Carriage by air: The carriers which provide services by air like, aero planes, helicopters are air carriers.
Nepal Carrier and Transportation Act, 2049 provides the following classification of carriers:
- Common or public carriers
- Private carriers
- Tourist carriers
- Government carriers
- Corporation carriers
Public or common carrier
Nepal Carrier and Transportation Act, 2049, Sec. 2(6) defines a public carrier. Thus carrier which is used for transportation services is a public carrier. Transportation service means carrying goods for passengers from one place to another place for a fare. Thus a common carrier means, "Any individual, firm or company other than governmental, who transport goods, as a business, for money over land or inland, waterways, without discrimination between different consignors, is called common carrier."
A common carrier can be classified into two classes:
- Carrier for passengers, and
- Carrier for goods, goods means non living things and living things (animals, birds) except man.
According to above definition, a public carrier must be ready to carry goods or any body (public) without any discrimination and are entitled to get remuneration or charges for the services.
Characteristics of a Public Carrier
- A public carrier must be ready for general carrier business. The carrier which carries goods occasionally is not a public carrier.
- A public carrier has to carry goods for any body, indiscriminately.
- A public carrier provides goods by land, sea and air.
- Only carriers of goods come under this definition (In Indian Law). It does not carry passengers.
- A public carrier provides services regularly through its customary rate, route etc.
- A common carrier may be an individual, a firm or a company. It does not include government carrier.
- Carrying goods is a regular business. It always carriers goods for payment. So if one carries goods occasionally or if one carries goods free of charge, it is not a common carrier.
- A common carrier is bound to carry goods of any person. Generally, he cannot refuse carrying goods of any consigner; there are certain conditions where a common carrier can lawfully refuse to carry goods of some consigners.
Exceptions of Public Carrier
Generally, a public carrier is supposed to be ready to carry goods regularly and indiscriminately, but they can reject to provide services in the following exceptional circumstances.
- If the goods are illegal.
- If the carrier has no more vehicles or space to carry.
- If the destination is out of route or of a customary route.
- If goods are not packaged properly and safely.
- If goods are of dangerous nature.
- If the carrier is fully loaded and there is no more accommodation to keep other goods in it.
- If the goods are risky enough.
- If the consignor refuses to pay its lawful and reasonable charges.
Private carrier is one who does not regular business as a carrier but occasionally carry goods for money. The private carrier does not carry the goods a regular business. It uses to carry its own goods but he may also carry the goods of others for money. He could not be complied to carry the goods of the others. It is his discretions whether or not to carry the goods of others.
Generally, the private carrier uses the vehicles to carry his own goods. When he does not have his goods to carry, he may carry the goods of others also for money. It is not his regular business to carry goods of other people. He is not bound to carry goods of all and sundry. So, no one can compel him to carry goods without his own option. He may or may not carry goods of others. Thus, he enjoys the discretion of accepting or rejecting any offer made by either gratuitously or not gratuitously.