Common Sense and Psychology
Psychology refers to the scientific and systematic study of the mental process and behavior of the human being. One of the key characteristics of psychology is that it focuses on the individual rather than on the group.
Common sense is the phase that generally implies something everyone knows. It is a sound judgment based on a simple perception of the situation or facts.
People with common sense are seen as reasonable, reliable, and practical. Common sense refers to good sense in practical matter.
Psychology focuses on science, theoretical understanding and research but common sense is based on experience and reasoning.
Common sense allows people to be practical and reasonable. It makes them arrive at conclusion or make decision based on the experiences that they have. When speaking of common sense, we use previous experience.
Methods of Psychology
Research- systematic inquiry aimed at the discovery of new knowledge- is a central ingredient of the scientific method in psychology.
A research method is a systematic plan for doing research. Research in psychology is conducted in broad accord with the standards of the scientific method, encompassing both qualitative ethological and quantitative statistical modalities to generate and evaluate explanatory hypothesis with regard to psychological phenomenon.
1. Introspection Method
It is the oldest method known for the study of behavior. In the earliest days of evolution of the subject psychology, the behavior was studied only through a kind of self examination in an observation called Introspection method. It is the simplest method.
2. Naturalistic Observation
Naturalistic observation as a method of studying behavior consists of the perception of an individual behavior under natural condition by the other individual and interpretation and analysis of this behavior by them. It is economical, natural as well as flexible. It can be proved useful only by collecting data and observation the behavior of an individual.
3. Experimental Method
It is considered as the most scientific and objective method for studying behavior. The word experiment came from the Latin word which means “To try”. Psychological experiment performed in this method essentially required two people, the experimental and the subject or the person whose behavior is observed. There is various experimental design used in experimental method for controlling the variables and measuring the effect. It advocates the study of behavior under completely control condition.
4. Differential Method
It is based on individual differences. Therefore, all the measure applied to the calculation of individual differences is included in this method. This method also known as “normative survey method”. There are two types of main approaches which are used in differential method:
- Correlation approach
- The longitudinal or cross-sectional approach
5. Clinical Method
It helps in the diagnosis and treatment of the problem of an individual. Diagnosis may be carried out through as adequate physical checkup, building up comprehensive history, arranging interview, using relevant test and observing the client’s behaviors in natural environment.
6. Psycho-Physical Method
Psychophysical is the study of the relationship between the physical aspects of stimuli and our psychological experiences of them.
The branch of psychology which is concerned with the study of the relationship between physical and psychological phenomena is called psycho-physical method. This method may be referred to all those methods in which attempts are made to employ physical device for the scientific measurement of psychological experiences like sensation of weight, brightness, loudness and other device.