Concept of Psychology
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental process where behavior includes all our outward or overt action and reaction such as talking, facial expression and movement.
The term mental process refers to all the internal or overt activities of our mind such as thinking, feeling and remembering.
It encompasses not just what people do but also their thoughts, emotions, personality, perceptions, reasoning processing, memories, and even the biological activities that maintain bodily functioning.
Psychologist try to describe, predict, and explain human behavior and mental processes, as well as helping to change and improve the lives of people and the world in which they live. They use scientific methods to find answers that are far more valid and legitimate than those resulting from institution and speculation, which are often inaccurate.
According to American psychological Association, Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior”.
Wilhelm Wundt in 1879 opened first experimental laboratory in psychology at the University of Leipzig, Germany. He is considered as the Father of Psychology.
- The study of soul.
- The study of mind.
- The study of consciousness.
- The study of the behaviors.
Etymologically, the word psychology means the study of the soul on account of its derivation two Greek words, Psyche (Soul) and logos (a study).
According to William Mc Dogall , “Psychology is a science which aims to give us better understanding and control of the behavior of organism as a whole”
According to American Proffesor Walter Bowers, “Psychology may be must defined as the science of human behavior or scientific study of the behavioral activities and experience.”
Goals of Psychology:
1. Description (What is happening?):
Description involves observing a behavior and noting everything about it, what is happening, where it happens, to whom it happens.
2. Explanation (why is it happening?):
A theory is a general explanation of a set of observation.
3. Prediction (when will it happens again?):
Determining what will happen in the future is a prediction.
4. Control (How can it be changed?):
The modification of some behavior is to change a behavior from an undesirable one to desirable one.