Culture is a main identity of human being. It is a system of behavior shared by a member of the society. Culture is the unique quality of human being which separates him/her from other animals.

Culture is the way of thinking, the way of behaving, the way of acting and the material object that together forms a people ways of life. Culture means creation of human being which includes what we think, how we act, and what we own. Culture is both our link to the past and our guide to the future.

According to Anthropologist E.B. Tylor’s “ Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, arts, laws, morals, customs, values, belief and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society”

According to E.A. Hoebel “ Culture is the sum total of integrated learned behavior patterns which are characteristic of the members of a society”

Features of Culture

  • Culture is a way of life.
  • Culture is universal.
  • Culture is shared by members of a society.
  • Culture shape how we act. Think and feel.
  • Culture is a human trait.
  • Culture is a product of evolution.
  • Culture is transmissive.
  • Culture is dynamic and adaptive.
  • Culture varies from society to society.

Main Elements of Culture

  • Language
  • Symbols
  • Customs
  • Norms, Values , and Beliefs
  • Social Control
  • Material Infrastructure

Types of Culture

1. Material Culture (Tangible things):

The physical things created by member of society, which is visible and touchable things such as road, building, T.V., mobile, dress, temple.

2. Nonmaterial Culture( Intangible things):

The ideas created by member of society which is abstract or invisible such as love, belief system, feelings, emotion, language etc.

Functions of Culture

  • Culture defines situations.
  • Cultures define attitudes, values and goals.
  • Culture provides behavior patterns.
  • Culture provides us with design for living.
  • Culture acts as a means of social control through norms, folkway, and values.
  • Culture distinguishes man from animal.
  • Culture provides solution for complicated situation.
  • Culture shapes personality.

Determinants of Culture

  • Social structure
  • Religion
  • Language
  • Education
  • Political Philosophy
  • Economic Philosophy

Sub-Culture (Youth, ethnic and age sub culture vis-a –vis society and organization, e.g. consumer behavior, organizational culture)

The term subculture refers to cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society’s population. A subculture is a culture within a broader mainstream culture, with its own separate values, practices, and beliefs. In sociology, the concept of subculture explains the behavior of some social groups. Within a culture there exists more homogeneous subgroup. These groups have their own values, customs, traditions and others ways of behavior that are peculiar to a particular group within a culture.

As Duncan Mitchell has pointed out, “ a sub-culture is generally taken to mean a section of a national culture”.

According to Maxwell, the main subcultures are: regional subculture, ethnic or nationality subculture, urban and rural subculture, class subculture, occupational subculture, and the religious sub culture.

Of considerable importance for an international business with operations in different countries is how a society’s culture affects the values found in the workplace. Management process and practices may need to vary according to culturally determined work related values.

Culture in your business means shared values and goals you embrace as an organization. You must create a culture that contributes to your success. The larger your business grows; however, the more likely your organization will develop small groups that share their own values.

Organizational culture refers to the beliefs and values that have existed in an organization for a long time, and to the beliefs of the staff and the foreseen value of their work that will influence their attitudes and behavior.

Administrators usually adjust their leadership behavior to accomplish the mission of the organization, and this could influence the employees’ job satisfaction. It is therefore essential to understand the relationship between organizational cultures, leadership behavior and job satisfaction of employees.

The culture within an organization is very important, playing a large role in whether it is a happy and healthy environment in which to work. In communicating and promoting the organizational ethos to employees, their acknowledgement and acceptance of it can influence their work behavior and attitudes.