Concept of Communication
No organization can exist without communication. It is the essence of organizational effectiveness. It is the transfer of message and meaning from one person to another person.
The meaning of the message received should be close to the intended meaning. It can be verbal, non-verbal and electronic. It is giving and receiving information.
According to Stephen P. Robbins, “Communication is the transference and understanding of meaning.”
Concept of Two-Way Communication
Communication involves feelings, emotions, interests, experiences, attitudes and information. It is the greatest source of power, the most significant characteristics of mankind. It is the process of dealing with others.
In the process of communication there is always a sender and a receiver. Communication is not only interpersonal process; it has several behavioral implications.
The term ‘communication’ is derived from the Latin word ‘communis’ which means common. Thus if a person communicates, the person establishes a common ground of understanding.
The fundamentals of communication are: (a) two people are required, and (b) understanding is important for success.
According to McShane and Glinow, “Communication refers to the process by which information is transmitted and understood between two or more people.”
To sum up; communication is a process of transmitting information, thoughts, opinions, messages, facts, ideas or emotions and understanding from one person, place or thing to another person, place or thing.
Therefore, communication may be taken to mean the transferring the mental concept from the brain of one individual to the brain of another.
Communication is a process, which means that communication exists as a flow through a sequence (series of steps). A simple model of communication process is illustrated in below figure. The model consists of seven parts or elements. These are as follows:
1. Communication source:
It is the individual, group or organization interested in communicating something to another party.
It is the process by which the message is translated from an idea or thought into transmittable symbols. For example; sound, word, number, picture, gesture etc.
It is the process through which the symbols that represent the message are sent to the receiver. The medium is the channel or path of transmission. For example; (i) interpersonal talking, touching, (ii) mass media- newspapers, magazines, television, etc.
It is the process by which the receiver of the message interprets the message’s meaning.
The communication process is a loop that connects the sender and receiver and operators in both directions. Communication process is not complete until the original sender knows the receiver understands the message.
The receiver is the individual, group, or organization that perceives the encoded symbols and may or may not decode them and try to understand the intended massage.
It is the process in which the receiver returns a message to the sender that indicates receipt of the message.
It is any disturbance in the communication process that interferes with or distorts communication.