Basic block diagram of optical fiber communication system consists of following important
- Information channel
Message origin :
Generally message origin is from a transducer that converts a non-electrical message into an electrical signal. Common examples include microphones for converting sound waves into currents and video (TV) cameras for converting images into current. For data transfer between computers, the message is already in electrical form.
- The modulator has two main functions.
- It converts the electrical message into the proper
- It impresses this signal onto the wave generated by the carrier
Two distinct categories of modulation are used i.e. analog modulation and digital modulation.
Carrier source :
Carrier source generates the wave on which the information is transmitted. This wave is called the carrier. For fiber optic system, a laser diode (LD) or a light emitting diode (LED) is They can be called as optic oscillators, they provide stable, single frequency waves with sufficient power for long distance propagation.
Channel coupler :
- Coupler feeds the power into the information channel. For an atmospheric optic system, the channel coupler is a lens used for collimating the light emitted by the source and directing this light towards the The coupler must efficiently transfer the modulated light beam from the source to the optic fiber. The channel coupler design is an important part of fiber system because of possibility of high losses.
Information channel :
- The information channel is the path between the transmitter and receiver. In fiber optic communications, a glass or plastic fiber is the channel. Desirable characteristics of the information channel include low attenuation and large light acceptance cone Optical amplifiers boost the power levels of weak signals. Amplifiers are needed in very long links to provide sufficient power to the receiver. Repeaters can be used only for digital systems. They convert weak and distorted optical signals to electrical ones and then regenerate the original disgital pulse trains for further transmission.
- Another important property of the information channel is the propagation time of the waes travelling along it. A signal propagating along a fiber normally contains a range of optic frequencies and divides its power along several ray This results in a distortion of the propagating signal. In a digital system, this distortion appears as a spreading and deforming of the pulses. The spreading is so great that adjacent pulses begin to overlap and become unrecognizable as separate bits of information.
Optical detector :
- The information being transmitted is detector. In the fiber system the optic wave is converted into an electric current by a photodetector. The current developed by the detector is proportional to the power in the incident optic wave. Detector output current contains the transmitted information. This detector output is then filtered to remove the constant bias and thn amplified.
- The important properties of photodetectors are small size, economy, long life, low power consumption, high sensitivity to optic signals and fast response to quick variations in the optic
Signal processing :
Signal processing includes filtering, amplification. Proper filtering maximizes the ratio of signal to unwanted power. For a digital system decision circuit is an additional block. The bit error rate (BER) should be very small for quality
Message output :
The electrical form of the message emerging from the signal processor are transformed into a soud wave or visual image. Sometimes these signals are directly usable when computers or other machines are connected through a fiber system.