Physiological needs (food, water, sleep, maternal drive, sexual gratification).
Safety needs (security, freedom, protection).
Belonging and love needs (having friends, family, group identification intimate relationship).
Esteem needs (respect confidence, attention, status, recognition).
Self-actualization (develop potential to the fullest).
1) Psychological needs:
They are basic survival needs for food, water, clothing, shelter, sex etc. They permit continued existence of our body. They are the needs of the lowest order and assume top priority.
- Salary provides a means to satisfy psychological needs in organizations.
2) Safety needs:
They are needs for security and protection from physical and emotional harm.
- Provident fund, pension, health insurance satisfy safety needs in organizations.
3) Social needs (Belongings needs):
They are needs for affection, belongingness, companionship and social acceptance. They are the needs for contact and interactions with other people.
- Peers, informal group, employee club etc. satisfy social needs in organizations.
4) Esteem needs (Ego needs):
They are needs of liking and disliking for oneself. They can be:
Internal: Needs for self-esteem, autonomy, achievement etc.
External: Needs for status, recognition, praise, prestige etc.
- Job titles, posh offices, luxury cars satisfy esteem needs in organizations.
5) Self-actualization needs:
They are needs for self-fulfillment, potential achievement, creativity, talent utilization and personal growth, etc. It is “becoming what one is capable of becoming”. Self-actualization needs can never be fully satisfied.
- Lower-order needs: psychological and safety needs that are satisfied externally are lower-order needs. They are most pressing needs.
- Higher-order needs: Social, esteem and self-actualization needs that are satisfied internally are higher order needs. They are least pressing needs.
Factors Related to Enhance Motivation
Organizational psychologists have proposed several techniques to enhance work motivation:
- Goal setting
- Equity in job
- Expectancy theory
- Job design
- Job security
- Physical working environment