Job Analysis techniques provides systematic and quantitative procedures that yields information about what job duties are being accomplished and what skill, ability and knowledge are needed to perform the ob. The important techniques of job analysis are as follows:
1. Job Focused Techniques:
This technique is concerned with the task that make-up various jobs. Following techniques are included in this
I) Functional Job Analysis:
This technique was developed by US Department of Labour .In this technique, the information about the job is gathered from observation or interview. This information is link into the three general functions that exist in the entire job. They are Data, People and Things. After relating the job with these functions, the score is given, which is use to determine the salary for the relative (Table of scoring form Agrawal sir book)
II) The Hay Plan:
This technique is used to analyze managerial and executive level jobs. It is based on an interview between job analyst and the person in job. Under this technique, this information related to four aspects of an executive‘s job are They are :-
- The objective of the job
- The dimension to be covered by the job holders while being in that position
- The nature and scope of the position
- The accountabilities.
III) Method Analysis:
The main purpose of the technique is to analyze job to help employees to work more effectively and efficiently. Under this technique, body movement and procedural steps used to perform jobs are They are:
- Balancing movements of two hands
- Opposite and symmetrical direction of hands
- Reduction of muscular efforts
- Doing productive works without idle time
- Location and position of tools and material for grasping
- Illumination, height and space arrangement at
This method is applicable to analyze the physical works and to improve the efficiency of the workers.
2. Person / Behavioural Focused Techniques:
This technique analyzes the behaviour requirement of the job. Following are the techniques includes in this category.
I) Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ):
This technique was developed by the researcher at Purdue University. It contains 194 elements of job within 27 division job dimension and five overall job dimensions. These 5 dimension states the behaviour difference in individual jobs. They are:
- Having decision making/communication/social responsibility: This dimension requires considerable amount of communication and interaction with people as well as responsibilities associated with decision making and planning
- Performing skill activities: This dimension requires skills like precision, recognizing differences and mental control to operate technical tools and devices.
- Being physically active/related environmental condition: It is related to considerable movement of entire body or major part of it.
- Operating vehicle/equipment: It relates to operation or use of vehicle.
- Processing Information: This dimension relate to range of information processing activities.
The PAQ allows management, scientifically and quantitatively group interrelated job elements into job dimensions. Thus, in-turn allow jobs to be compared with each other and similar job are grouped into job families. And ofcourse these information are use to develop job description, job specification and conduct job evaluation.
II) Critical Incident Technique:
Under this technique, the critical incidents that occurred during the last 6 to 12 months are identified. This incident is link to the job performance or the workers behaviour on an particular job.
And determine its effectiveness and ineffectiveness in Thus, by the help of this information job description and job specification are developed. This method provides the actual picture of job requirement. However, it is time consuming and may focus on unusual behaviour of the workers.