Job Design

To derive the higher level of organizational performance and employee satisfaction jobs or works should be designed carefully and systematically.

It should try to minimize the negative consequences and maximize the positive consequences. But it is very difficult to identify the trade-off point in practice. A number of things have to be considered while designing the work through skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback.

The evidence indicates that these characteristics enhance member motivation and increases individual group and organizational effectiveness.

According to Moorhead/Griffin, “Job design is how organizations defines and structured jobs.”

According to Helliriegel/Slocum/Woodman, “Job design refers to the goals and tasks to be accomplished by managers’ and employees, including expected interpersonal and task relationships.”

To sum up; Job design occurs each time individuals are assigned to work, given instructions or empowered to perform task and peruse goals. Tasks and means for performing tasks can change over the period of time. Thus the needs and goals of both the employee and the organization should be considered in the design of jobs.

Human Factors in Organizing (Organization Design and Employee Behavior)

Organization design is concerned with structure. Employee behavior is reflected by performance and job satisfaction. Organization design does effect employee behavior. The effect of organization design on employee behavior cannot be generalized. It depends on:

  • Individual differences in terms of personality and experience
  • Type of jobs done
  • National cultural differences

The effects of organization design on employee behavior can be considered in terms of:

  1. Work specialization: It contributes to higher performance. Job satisfaction tends to be low. But specialization is not an endless source of productivity. People are losing their preference for specialized jobs.
  2. Span of control: There seems no relationship between span of control and employee performance or satisfaction.
  3. Centralization: Participative decision making in decentralized organizations leads to higher job satisfaction.

There is no last word about the impact of organization design on employee behavior.