This post is about the Manufacturing Process Technology and Types of Conversion Process in Operation Management and also definition and meaning of the Process Selection.
What is Process Selection? Definition and Meaning
The process is basically a sequence of activities intended to achieve the desired activities. In manufacturing or service firm process converts inputs like raw materials, labour, capital, information etc. into desired output through the help of various machines and equipment.
Deciding which process to use is one of the key elements in the design of production system. Process selection is a key issue every time a new production or services are being planned.
However, periodically, it also occurs due to changes in products or services, environment and technology.
- The major questions that are taken into account during the process selection are:
- How much variety in products or services will the process has to handle.
- General degree of equipment flexibility that is needed?
- What are the major kinds of equipments and machines available?
- What is the cost of machines and equipments?
- What is the expected volume of output?
- Operation cost
- Manpower available etc.
Manufacturing Process Technology in Operation Management
Manufacturing Process Technology/ Types of Conversion Process: Manufacturing process (conversion process) can be organized in number of ways. The manufacturing process technologies include equipments people and system that are used to produce a firm's product or service. The process technology can be divided into five types:
- Project technology
- Job shop technology
- Batch technology
- Assembly line technology
- Continuous flow technology
1. Project technology
Project technique is suitable for the production of unique character products such as buildings, bridges, dams, roads etc. These entire products generally cannot be standardized and are produced in special way to meet the demand/requirement of customer.
The customers are onetime customer. The product demand is infrequent in volume. Hence, the project technology should be flexible to meet the infrequent, varied and small volume requirement of customer.
2. Job shop technology
In this technology small batches of different (varied) products are produced. These productions may have different sequence or steps. Previous job may differ from the present one. The production technology should be flexible for producing the variety of Job products.
Her e the production is carried out only after receiving customer order, so it is hard for material and other resources planning, scheduling of rations and controlling activities. This is due to uncertainty of nature quality, quantity and specialization of customer order.
This makes standardization of raw material, process, products and other facilities difficult. Tailor and printing shop are example of job shop technology.
3. Batch technology
Product are produced in larger quantity than job shop. Production is carried in accordance to customer order or for immediate stock.
The technology characteristics are similar to job shop technology, however due to larger batch size; it is less difficult for planning, controlling and scheduling production process compared to job shop technology Examples of batch technology are heavy equipment manufacturing and electronic device manufacturing.
4. Assembly line technology
When the product is relatively stable, the high density, assembly line technology with limited variety is appropriate. Here specialized equipment, skill manpower and management system are used and developed to produce limited range and high volume of products.
This type of process technology cannot produce a variety of products and less flexible compared to job and batch technology. The assembly line technology is used for production of goods like TV, Radio, Motorbike VCR, VCD etc.
5. Continuous flow technology
When the products are highly specialize standardized and large volume of products are produced for stocks and then continuous process technology is suitable. It is cap technology.
It uses standardized material, machine and equipment continuous flow to produce high volume of standardized or system is inflexible.
Fast moving consumer goods manufacture technology e.g. soap, noodles, biscuits capital-intensive . The truer uses this products difference between Project, Job, Batch, Assembly and Continuous technology is shown on following table.