There are various methods of job design. Some of them are explained below:
1. Scientific Management Approach:
This method is suggested by F.W Taylor. Under this method, jobs are narrowly defined. The job is simplified by breaking down the job into tasks. This task specifies not only what is to be done, but how it is to be done and the exact time allowed for doing This further helps in work specialization.
Taylor suggested that, job should be designed first and then finding or fitting people to the job should be done next. He further argued that doing so; it not only decreases the cost of training and development but also motivates the people toward work. This approach is job oriented which can be used mostly in assembly line where same job are done repeatedly.
2. Herzberg’s Motivation –Hygiene Theory:
This method is suggested by Frederick Herzberg. He and his associates found that people like to work in those organizations where two factors – hygiene and motivator are presents.
Hygiene factors are pay, working condition (heating, lighting and ventilation), company policy and quality of supervision. These factor lead to an increase in Motivators are the feeling of self improvement, recognition, achievement and a desire for an acceptance of a greater responsibility.
Presence of motivator factors motivates the employees and leads to job satisfaction. However, presence of hygiene factors in job not necessarily motivates the employees but absence causes dissatisfaction in the ob and lead to low productivity. Since, dissatisfaction can be minimized by providing adequate salary, improving working condition. However, motivate factors are totally related to job itself.
Thus job should be designed in following ways.
- Employees should be made more accountable for his/her job by delegating some
- Individual are given opportunity to plan and schedule their own
- There should be as far as possible direct or face to face communication while working on that
- Work should design in such that the worker can consider doing his/her own
- Reward system should match the work
3. Job Rotation:
Job Rotation is the process of motivating employees by moving them from one job to another job for a shorter period of time. It is normally used to train different skills and techniques to the workers, so that one can work in different jobs at the time of urgency and It also helps to avoid the boredom and frustration caused by similar and repetitive jobs.
4. Job Enlargement:
Job Enlargement is the process of increasing the work load by adding the same nature of jobs or tasks into a job. E.g. the various tasks like operating camera, check sound, prepare lighting and report story can be added to video journalist job.
5. Job Enrichment:
Job enrichment is one of the mostly used techniques to motivate the employees at work. Under this technique, employees are free to set their goals, supervise their subordinates and enjoy power over others by planning and controlling their work and work related activities. This will enhance the employees’ commitment and and satisfaction.
Techniques of job enrichment are as follows:
- Specific task: Assign specific task to the individual to develop
- Combine task: Add similar job to one to increase job
- Self-set standard: Allow the employees to set their own standard and
- Minimal control: Provide greater autonomy to work and work related
- Employee accountability: Make employee accountable for their
- Feedback: Provide feedback to employees about performance
6. Job Characteristics Approach:
This approach is suggested by Hackman and This approach is based on premise (idea) that it is possible to alter a job’s character and create conditions of high work motivation, satisfaction and performance by recognizing that people respond differently to the same job. This method states that specific job characteristics affect job design. They are :-
- Skill Variety or the degree to which a job requires a job variety of different
- Task Identity or the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.
- Task significance or degree to which a job provides substantial impact on the lives or work of other
- Autonomy or the degree to which job provides substantial freedom, independence and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures used to carry it out.
- Feedback or the degree to which carrying out the activities required by a job result in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his/her
7. The Open Social –Technical System Approach:
This approach is useful to design jobs to satisfy team or group employees. This approach implies that the work setting has to be seen in terms of two interrelated system: a social and technical system.
The open system denotes the constant interaction of the organization and the work group as units with a larger environment. The major elements of job designing by using an open social technical system includes:-
- Variation in the inputs and outputs of
- Estimates of relative importance of different
- Description of work roles, status, recruitment and
- Analysis of attitude to
- Analysis of the system of remuneration, wages
- Analysis of communication
8. Autonomous Work Group (Self-Managed Team):
Under this method, the group or team is assigned, who has full autonomy to take any decision related to work and work activities.
They are free to decide about the working methods, people involvement, people responsibility, leadership etc.
This method focused on group achievement rather than individual achievement. Due to freedom and the performance based reward system, employees are more motivated towards works and thus enhance productivity.