Natural resources

Natural resources are those naturally available goods and sources under the natural environment and human acquire these goods to fulfill their needs. These are the free gift of nature to us. Forest resources, minerals, water, wind, etc. are the example of natural resources.

Types of natural resources

  • Perpetual resources: - Natural resources which do not decreases even if they constantly used are known as the perpetual resources. Solar energy, water, wind etc. are the example of perpetual resources.
  • Non-renewable resources: - The resources that cannot be regenerate after they are used are called non-renewable resources. Petroleum, natural gas, minerals etc. are the example of non-renewable natural resources.
  • Renewable resources: - The resource which can be renewed and regenerated with the human efforts during the certain period of time are called renewable resources. Forest resources, water resources, etc. are the clear example of renewable resources.

Water resources

Nepal is the second richest country of the world in water resources. Water sources of Nepal useful to irrigation, Ecological balance, drinking, and hydropower. Nepal has more than six thousand small as well as big river. Nepal is divided into three region Koshi, Karnali and Gandaki region. More than one thousand rivers are of 11 km long. About 100 rivers are of more than 160 km long. Probability of hydroelectricity is 83,000 Mega Watt. Irrigation probability is 80 lakh Hector. Rivers of Nepal are divided into three class on the basis of flow of river, water reservation capacity and utility. 

There are various hydropower projects which are under constructions. Some major hydropower projects are: Upper Tamakoshi 456 MW, Chameliya 30MW, and Upper Trishuli 3 “A’ 30 MW, etc. Current produced energy is 1044.6 MW in Nepal.

  • First Class River: - Saptakoshi, Karnali, Gandaki and some others are of first class rivers. These rivers are started from the Himalaya. It has high probability hydroelectricity and irrigation.
  • Second class river: - The rivers which are started from the Mahabharat hill and flows continue are known as second class rivers. Mechi, Triyouga, Kamala, Bagmati, Tinahu, Rapti etc fall under this category.
  • Third class River: Rivers which are started from the sivalik and chure are known as Third Class Rivers. These types of rivers depend monsoon for its smooth flow. For example sunsari khola falls under Third Class River.

Main rivers of Nepal

Saptakoshi: - The rivers which is made from the different small and big rivers of are between Kanchanjanga and Lamtang is known as saptakoshi river. Sunkoshi, Dudhkoshi, Arun, Tamakoshi, Indrawoti, Tamor and Likhu are the main rivers which constitute saptakoshi. Out of seven rivers Arun is the bigest and Liku is the smallest river. It is the largest river of Nepal. It has the capacity of irrigating area.

Saptagandki River: - Saptagandaki River is made from the seven river which are Kali Gandaki, Budhi Gandaki, Seti Gandaki, Madee, Daraudin, Marsyngdi and Trishuli. It is the deepest river of Nepal. Kali Gandaki is the biggest river and Trishuli is the smallest river of Saptagandaki. It is also known as Narayani River. Sapta gandaki has irrigatinf capacity of 26000 sq. km. area

Karnali: - Karnali is the longest river of Nepal. It is made from the Humal Karnali, Mugu Karnali, Thuli Bheri, Sani Bheri, Seti, Tila and Budhi Ganga. It has 507 Km length. We can irrigate 49000 sq. km. by using this river.

Mechi River: - It is originated from the Lalikharka of Mahabharata range and flows the eastern part of Nepal. It has 125 km length with the territory of Nepal.

Kankai River: - It is originated in Chhintapu of Mahabharata range and flows in the eastern part of Nepal. It has 108 Km Length.

Bagmati River: - It falls under the central Nepal. The origin of this river is Bagdwar of Shivapuri lake of Mahabharata range. It has 163Km length.

Kamala River: - Kamala River Origins from Chure range of southern Sindhuli. It has 107km Lenghth. It has 2200 water resources area.

Tinahu: - Tinahu river origins from the Mahbharata range. It is the best source of irrigation in Rupandehi district.

Mahakali River: - Mahakali River flows in the western boarder of Nepal. It origins from Mountain called Jaskar. Tinker khola, Chameliya, Surniyagadj etc are the branch river of this river. It has 223km length, it has 15300 sq. km water resource area.

Lakes of Nepal

Rara Lake : The Rara Lake is situated 3200 m above from the sea level. It is situated in Mugu District of Karnali. It is surrounded by the Rara national park. The length of this lake is 5.2 km and Depth is 167 m. 

Phewa Lake : It is situated in Kaski district. It lies at the height of 742 m from the sea level. The depth of the lake is 24 m and the area is 435 hector.

Begnas Lake : It is situated in kaski district. It lies at the height of 677 from the sea level. the depth of the lake is 7.5 m. the area of the lake is 225 hector.

Rupa Lake : The lake is situated in Kaski district. It lies at the height of 701 m from the sea level. The depth of lake is 4.5 m and the area is 120 hector.

Phoksundo Lake : The lake is found in Dolpa district. The length of the lake is 4.2km. The breadth of the lake is 1.8 km. The depth of the lake is 2000 ft. 

Gosainkunda Lake : The lake is situated in Rasuwa district. It lies at the height of 4380 m. The area 4 Km2.

Indrasarobar Lake : The lake is situated in Makawanpur district. It's length is 7 km. It is constructed by human efforts.

Tilicho Lake : It is situated in Manang district. It lies at the height of 4919 m from the sea level. The depth of the lake is 200m and the area is 4.8 km2.

Land of Nepal

Nepal is a mountainous country in the central Himalayas, which occupies about one third of (800 km) of the entire length of the Himalayan mountain range. Nepal alone claims eight out of the top ten tallest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest (8,848 m). Nepal is divided into seven regions:

  • Terai
  • Siwaliks
  • Mahabharat
  • Midlands
  • Himalayas
  • Inner Himalayas
  • Tibetan marginal mountains


Terai land (25–32 km wide) in the southern part of the country running along the border between India and Nepal. It is a part of the Indo-Gangetic plain; hence the soil is alluvial (Pango) and fine to medium textured. Terai covers about 17% of Nepal. The total agricultural land of Terai is 61.9 Percent. There are 20 districts in Terai. It covers 25021 square kilometer area of the total area of Nepal. Main agricultural production of Terai are paddy, wheat, sugarcane, edible oilseed, vegetables etc.


To the north of the Tarai and Bhabar the land rises abruptly and reaches altitudes ranging from 700 to 1,500 m. This hilly range and its intervening area are commonly known as the Siwalik or Churia range. The Churia range is composed of sedimentary rock and big boulders. We find sandy boulder soil in Siwalik region. This region is not suitable for agriculture and human settlements and it has low agricultural productivity. However, there is productive land in Tarai like Dun valleys between the Siwaliks and Mahabharat, which are extensively exploited for agriculture and settlement.


Mahabharat is located between the Siwalik to the south and Midlands to the north. The Mahabharat is an east-west running mountain range. The altitude ranges from 1,500 to 2,700 m and is characterized by a subtropical climate at low altitudes and a temperate climate at high altitudes. The relatively gentle slope on the north face is cultivated and settled in places. It the valley of this region Glacial soil is found which is appropriate for agricultural activities. It is the fertile land. Most of this area is full of mixture of alluvial and sandy boulder soil.


This region lies to the north of Mahabharat Lekh and includes many high valleys, such as Kathmandu, Pokhara, Banepa and Trisuli. It is situated in central Nepal and is an economically vibrant and well-populated region. Hagen called it the “heart of the country” because of its central role in the social development of the country. The altitude ranges from 600 to 3,500 m, with an average altitude of 2,000 m. It has lacustrine soil (Black soil) which is the fertile land for agriculture. 


It is a mountain range running in the east–west direction above the altitude of 3,000 m cradled between high mountains, worn in the past by glaciers, north of the Midlands. This Himalayan region is the home of the highest mountains in the world. It has the residual soil or mountain soil. Similarly we find glacial soil in high lands. It is less fertile soil appropriate crops are Potato, Barley, Bug wheat, Maize etc.

Inner Himalayas and Tibetan Marginal Mountains

Inner Himalayas includes several inner Himalayan valleys with desert conditions, such as the upper Kali Gandaki and Bheri valleys, located at altitudes above 3,600 m. These valleys are dry, and the effect of the monsoon is virtually absent. Tibetan marginal mountains lie north of the Annapurna and Dhaulagiri mountains at altitudes of 6,000–7,000 m. It includes some parts of the Dolpa, Mustang and Manang districts. Here we find glacial soil which is less fertile for agricultural activities.