Organizational Behavior - Short Question Answer

Here in this section of Organizational Behavior Short Questions Answers, We have listed out some of the important Short Questions with Answers which will help students to answer it correctly in their University Written Exam.

1. Point out the input variables of organizational behaviour system.

Individual processing variables

  • Biological characteristics
  • Ability
  • Values
  • Attitudes
  • Personality
  • Emotions, etc.

Group level variables

  • Task characteristics
  • Group composition
  • Group size,  etc.

Organizational level variables

  • Organization structure
  • Culture
  • Leadership, etc.
2. Define organization and behaviour.

An organization is a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. Behaviour refers to anything that a person does and can be observed in some way.

3. Define organizational behaviour.

Organizational behaviour is directly concerned with the understanding, prediction, and control of human behaviour in an organization. In other words, organizational behaviour is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structures have on behaviour within an organization with the purpose of applying such knowledge for improvement of organizations effectiveness.

4. Enlist the few importance of OB.

Some of the major importance of OB are listed as follows:

  • It helps to understand organization and employee in a better way.
  • It motivates employees.
  • It helps to improve labor relations.
  • It assists in prediction and control of human behaviour.
  • It helps in maximization of human reousrces.
5. List out the critical behaviour issues confronting today’s managers.

The critical behavious issues confronting today’s managers are enlisted as follows:

  • Globalization
  • Workforce diversity (heterogeneity)
  • Quality and production
  • Improving people skills
  • Empowerment of employees
  • Managing organization change
  • Improving ethical behavior
6. What are the outputs of Organizational Behaviour system?

The key outputs of OB system are enlisted as follows:

  • Productivity
  • Absenteeism
  • Turnover
  • Organization citizenship behaviour
  • Job satisfaction
7. Sketch a figure showing key elements of OB.

The figure is shown below:

8. What is belief?

Belief is an enduring organization of perceptions and cognitions about some aspect of the individual world.

9. What do you understand by individual behavior?

Individual behavior refers to the response of the person in reference to various perspectives in an organizational situation. Every individual is different in nature so understanding individual behavior is complex. Individual behavior moreover is difficult to predict due to interplay of different variables.

10. Give the meaning of mental process.

Mental process basically is the performance of some composite cognitive activity. In simple words, it refers to a process that receives information from environment, analyze it and make decision and develop attitude based on the analysis.

11. What are the basic steps in mental process?

The basic stages in mental process are enlisted as follows:

  • Analyze
  • Purpose
  • Research
  • Decide
  • Hypothesize
  • Initiate
12. Sketch the figure of “behavior as an input-output system”.

The figure that represents behavior as an input-output system is sketched below.

13. What is cognitive dissonance?

A situation that involves conflicting attitudes, beliefs or behaviors is termed as cognitive dissonance. In other words, cognitive dissonance refers to any incompatibility that an individual might perceive between two or more of his or her attitudes, or between his or her behaviors and attitudes.

14. What are human motives?

Human motives refer to factors that determine a person’s choice of one course of behavior from among several possibilities. In other words, it is a human’s reason for choosing one behavior from among several choices.

15. State the factors influencing attitude.

The primary factors influencing attitude are enlisted as follows:

  • Family
  • Individual behavior
  • Teachers
  • Individual ability
  • Friends
  • Environment
  • Co-workers
  • Experience
16. Define beliefs and value.

Belief is an enduring organization 9f perceptions and cognitions about some aspect of the individual world. Value on the other hand is a framework of personal philosophy which governs and influences the individual’s reactions and responses to any situations.

17. Differentiate values from beliefs.

They are differentiated as follows:



Value is a framework of personal philosophy which governs and influences the individual’s reactions and responses to any situations.

Belief is an enduring organization of perceptions and cognitions about some aspect of the individual world.

Value is derived from social, cultural and moral backgrounds.

Beliefs are formed from past experience, available information and generalization.

18. What are the needs of human beings?

A need is a lack or deficit of something within the system or organism. The different needs of human beings can be classified into two major halves.

  • Primary need: Primary need refer to the things that human require sustaining themselves. For example, food, water, shelter, etc.
  • Secondary need: Primary need refer to desire and want of human beings and is much more psychological. For example, power, achievement, order, etc.
19. Enlist the major human needs with examples.

The major human needs are enlisted as follows:

  • Primary need: food, water, shelter, etc.
  • Secondary need: achievement, autonomy power, affiliation, understanding, etc.
20. Define attitude.

An attitude refers to evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people or events. In other words, an attitude refers to the way a person feels about and disposed towards some object.

21. What do you mean by emotions?

Emotion is an acute disturbance of the individual as a whole, psychological in origin, involving behavior, conscious experience and visceral functioning. In other words, emotion is any experience of strong feeling, usually accompanied by bodily change in circulation, breathing, sweating, etc. and often accompanied by tense and impulsive actions.

22. List out the major factors influencing individual behavior?

Individual behavior as a dependent variable is influenced by numerous factors enlisted as follows:

  • Goals
  • Needs
  • Beliefs
  • Motives
  • Attitudes
  • Sensation
  • Values
  • Cognitive dissonance
  • Emotions
  • Behavior
23. What does the term ‘distinctiveness’ mean in attribution theory?

As one of the key elements of attribution theory, distinctiveness refers to the frequency in regard to similarity of behavior of a person in different settings. To simplify it further, distinctiveness is whether the observed person acts the same way in different types of situations. When a person shows different behavior in different settings, the distinctiveness is high.

24. Define perception.

Perception is defined as a process by which an individual selects, organizes and interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world. In other words, perception is a process by which individual’s organize and interpret their sensory impression in order to give meanings to their environment.

25. List out the characteristics of perception.

The major characteristics of perception are enlisted as follows:

  • Perception is the base of every individual’s behavior.
  • It is a psychological process.
  • Perception differs from individual to individual and situation to  situation.
  • Perception is often developed by education and training.
  • Perception is based on expectation.
26. What are the factors that play important role in perception in organization?

The factors that play important role in influencing perception in organization are enlisted as follows:

1. Factors in the situation

  • Time
  • Work setting
  • Social setting

2. Factors in the perceiver

  • Attitudes
  • Motives
  • Interests

3.Factors in the target

  • Novelty
  • Motivation
  • Background


27. What are stimuli in perceptual process?

Stimuli are the input in perceptual process. lii other words, the perception process begins with the reception of stimuli. These stimuli are received through the five sensory organs from the various sources. Stimuli in general are of two types:

  • External: light, sound, etc.
  • Internal: feeling of pain, disease, tension, hunger, thrust,  etc.
28. Define the terms consensus.

Consensus refers to behavior of others in similar situation. In other words, it is defined as the degree to which other people, if in the same situation would behave in a similar way to the person being observed. When others behave differently in the given situation, consensus is deemed as low.

29. What is attribution theory?

Attribution theory tries to explain how perception affects behavior in organizations. As per this theory, human observe behavior and then attribute the causes to it. To be precise, as per this theory, when people attach cause and affect explanation to their behavior, it is known as attribution.

30. Define attribution errors.

An attribution error refers to the tendency of taking credit for success while blaming others or the environment for failures. Attribution error mainly occurs from the tendency of rater to judge behavior of others strictly and judges him loosely.

31. What is principle of intensity in learning?

Principle of Intensity in Learning

Principle of intensity in learning states that an individual will learn more from a real thing (primary) than from a substitute (secondary thing).

As per this, a routine or boring experience teaches less than a clear and dramatic learning experience.

32. Define learning.

Learning can be defined as relatively permanent change in behavior or behavior potential resulting from direct or indirect experience. In other words, learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.

33. Enlist the major steps in learning process.

For learning process to be completed, the following steps are essential:

  • A Stimulus
  • Response
  • Motivation or drive
  • Reward or incentive
34. What are the important theories of learning?

Theories of learning help to explain how the process of learning occurs. There are four important theories of learning enlisted as follows:

  • Classing conditioning theory
  • Operant conditioning theory
  • Cognitive theory
  • Social learning theory
35. Define classical conditioning theory.

Classical conditioning theory was propounded by a Russian Psychologist Ivan Petrovich. As per this theory, a formerly neutral stimulus when paired with an unconditional stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that illicit a conditioned response.

36. Define operant conditioning theory.

This approach to learning was proposed by B.F. Skinner. As per operant conditioning theory, human behavior is a function of its consequences. Moreover, people learn to behave to get something they want or avoid something they don't want.

37. Give the concept of cognitive learning.

Cognitive theory of learning is also called as stimulus-stimulus theory of learning. This theory primarily focuses on knowing the relationship between events and objects. As per this theory, learning is considered as the outcome of deliberate thinking about the problem.

38. What do you mean by social learning?

Social learning theory proposed by Bandura is also known as observational learning. As per this theory, new responses are learned through observing the behaviors of others.

39. List out the major steps of Behavior Modification

Major Steps of Behavior Modification

The major steps of behavior modification are enlisted as follows:

  • Identifying performance related behavior
  • Measuring behavior
  • Analyzing behavior
  • Developing intervention strategy
  • Implementing intervention strategy
  • Evaluating and monitoring
40. Define behavior modification?

Behavior modification IS the application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting. In other words, organizational behavior modification is defined as the application of reinforcement theory to people in organizational setting.

41. State the significance of learning.

The key significance of learning is enlisted as follows:

  • Improve employee skills
  • Control employee behavior
  • Identify skills
  • A behavioral development
  • Positive impact on job performance
42. Enlist the factors influencing learning.

The major factors influencing learning are listed as follows:

  • Psychological factors
  • Social factors
  • Environmental factors
  • Nature of learning material
  • Process of learning
  • Personal factors
43. Give the names of major models of learning.

The names of major models of learning are enlisted as follows:

  • Classical conditioning theory
  • Operant conditioning theory
  • Cognitive theory
  • Social learning theory
44. Define the terms conditional and unconditional response.

Conditional response is a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus. Popularly referred as UCR, unconditional response refers to an automatic and unlearned response triggered by unconditional stimulus. For example, flow of saliva when we see our favorite food.

45. What are the components of learning? Explain the classical conditioning theory of learning.

Components of Learning

The primary components of learning are discussed below:

  • Change: One of the primary components of learning is change. Learning is change in behaviour. The change could either be good or bad from an organizational point of view:
  • Relatively Permanent: The changing behavior must be relatively permanent. In that regard, for a learning to occur, the change in behavior must be relatively permanent.
  • Experience: It is important to have some form of experience for learning. Hence when someone develops ability based on his maturation, diseases, damages, etc. it is not called learning.
  • Reinforcement: The learned behavior will eventually disappear if reinforcement do not arrive, Reinforcement hence, is another primary component of learning.

Classical Conditioning Theory of Learning

It is a type of conditioning where an individual respond to some stimulus that would not invariably produce such a response. Classical conditioning grew out of experience to teach dogs to salivate in response to ringing of the bell, conducted by Russian psychologist, Wan Pavlov.

A simple surgical procedure allowed Pavlov to measure accurately the amount of saliva secreted by a dog. When Pavlov presented the dog with a piece of meat, the dog exhibited a noticeable increase in salivation. When Pavlov withheld the presentation of meat and nearly rang a bell, the dog has no salivation. Then Pavlov proceeded to link the meat and the ringing of the bell. After repeatedly hearing the bell before getting the food, the dog began to salivate nearly at the sound of the bell even if no food was offered. In effect, the dog learned to respond that is to salivate to the bell.

The meat was unconditioned stimuli. It invariably caused the dog to react in a specific way. Whenever, the bell was the artificial stimulus or conditioned stimulus the reaction took place. While it was originally neutral, when the bell was paired with the meat (an unconditioned stimulus), if eventually produced a response when presented alone. It is the conditioned response. This describes the behavior of the dog salivating in reaction to the bell alone.

Using these we can summarize the classical conditioning. Learning a conditioned response involves building up an association between a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus.

Using the paired stimulus, 40ne compelling and other one neutral, the neutral one becomes a conditioned stimulus and hence takes on the properties of the unconditioned stimulus.

Classical conditioning is passive. Something happens and we behave in a specific way. It is elicited in response to a specific, identifiable event. As such, it can explain simple reflexive behaviors. But most behavior particularly the complex behavior of individuals in organization is emitted rather than elicited. It is voluntary rather than reflexive. For example, employees choose to arrive at work on time, ask their superiors for help with problems. The learning of these behaviors is better understood by looking at operant conditioning.


46. What do you mean by agreeableness personality?

Represents to the ability of an individual to get along with other. People with agreeableness personality are caring, empathetic polite, etc. in nature.

47. What is personality?

Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological systems that determine his -unique adjustment to his environment. In other words, personality is a stable set of personal characteristics and tendencies that determine the commonalities and differences in people's thoughts, beings and actions.

48. Enumerate the major determinants of personality.

The major determinants of personality are enlisted as follows: Nature (Inborn factors)

  • Biological determinants
    • Heredity
    • Brain
    • Physical features Nurture (Environmental and situational factors)
  • Cultural factors
  • Family and social factors
  • Situational factors
49. Differentiate between extrovert and introvert personality type.

The persons with extrovert personality type are the one who are outgoing, talkative, social and assertive in nature. On the contrary, introvert is exactly opposite to extrovert. Person's with introvert personality are quite, shy and cautious in nature.

50. Contrast between thinking and judging types of personality.

Thinking and judging types of personality are contrasted as follows:

Thinking Personality

Judging Personality

Individual with thinking personality use reason and logic to handle problem.

Individual with judging personality prefer their world to be ordered and structured.

51. State Big Five personality traits.

The big five personality traits are enlisted as follows:

  • Conscientiousness
  • Emotional stability
  • Openness
  • Agreeableness
  • Extroversion
52. Enlist the major personality attributes influencing organizational behaviour.

The major personality attributes influencing organizational behaviour are enlisted as follows:

  • Locus of control
  • Machiavellianism
  • Self-monitoring
  • Risk taking
  • Personality type
  • Self-esteem
53. Enlist the motivational factors in Herzberg's two-factor theory.

The key motivational factors as per Herzberg are listed as follows:

  • Achievement
  • Recognition
  • Work itself
  • Responsibility
  • Advancement
  • Growth


54. What is motivation?

Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or needs that activates behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive. In other words, motivation represents those psychological process that cause the arousal, direction and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed.

55. Point out the importance of motivation.

The primary importance of motivation is enlisted as follows:

  • Motivation helps to create employee that are productive and creative in nature.
  • Motivation helps to reduce turnover and absenteeism associated with employee.
  • Motivation is important in maintaining good industrial relation in workplace.
56. Define needs. List its different types.

Need refers to the state of felt deprivation. As per Maslow, the different types of needs are enlisted as follows:

  • Physiological needs
  • Safety needs
  • Social needs
  • Esteem/ Ego needs



57. Sketch the motivation process.

The motivational process is showcased as following:

58. Enlist the salient features of motivation.

The salient features of motivation are enlisted as follows:

  • Motivation is continuous in nature.
  • Motivation can either be positive or negative.
  • Motivation is one complex entity.
  • Motivation is system oriented.
  • Motivation is goal focused.
59. Show the relationship between performance with ability, motivation and opportunity to do?

The relationship is showcased as follows:


where, P: performance; f: function;

A: ability;

M: motivation; O: opportunity

60. What are the various kinds of employee motivation?

The various kinds of employee motivation are enlisted as follows:

  • Positive motivation: Influence others to do your will through the possibility of gain and reward.
  • Negative motivation: It is based on force and fear. 
  • Extrinsic motivation: It is based on external motivators which employees enjoy.
  • Intrinsic motivation: It is based on employees internal feeling of having accomplished something substantial.
  • Self-motivation: Motivation due to oneself.
61. Differentiate between Positive and Negative Motivation

They are differentiated as follows:

Positive Motivation

Positive motivation is an attempting to influence others to do your will through the possibility of gain or reward.

Positive motivation is also known as incentive motivation.

In businesses, positive motivation increases the productivity of employees and influences them to work hard. So, if you are the owner or manager of any company you should give your employees some bonus or trip tickets after regular intervals.

Examples of positive motivation: When I was in school. My father said to me that if I got high marks in the tenth exam then they will buy a new phone for me.

Negative Motivation

Negative motivation is a process of attempting to influence others to do your will through possibility of force and fear.

Negative motivation is also known as fear motivation.

In some cases negative motivation is good but more of the time it increases our stress. So, you have to decide wisely which one is good for you between positive motivation and negative motivation.

Examples of negative motivation: Our parents often threatened to take away our favorite toys if we didn’t behave well. Due to the fear of losing toys, we don’t mess with my siblings and always behave well. This is an example of negative motivation.

When to use negative motivation:

Negative motivation works only if the person knows that escapement channels are available. For example a boss never shouts at his employees when they make mistakes without first showing him how to do things correctly. If the person knows how to freedom, then negative motivation is going to be effective.

Which one is better?

So, which of the two types of motivation work better? Tons of things motivate us. We cannot analyze them all. A lot of emotion fuels us with motivation. All the emotions among scarcity, abundance, satisfaction, love etc. All those needs motivation, but we should use wisely both of them when the need arises. Both do the same job, which is driving you to pursue certain things.

However, people who are unstoppable or top-notch in their fields are always motivated positively. Positive motivation is the new level or the upgrade the negative one. It’s what makes us flourish as humans, seeking excellence. Negative motivation is a survival device, it comes across when we around of some negativity. Negative motivation made you mediocre. Control your emotion, so you can control the kind of motivation that drives you.

62. Contrast intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are contrasted as follows:

Intrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic motivation refers to internal desire to perform a particular task.

Extrinsic motivation occurs when person is motivated to perform a behaviour to earn a reward or avoid punishment.

63. Explain in short about self-motivation.

Self-motivation is the force that drives a person to do things without another's prodding or supervision. Among all kinds of motivation, self-motivation is deemed as the best one.

64. What do you mean by biological needs and security needs?

Biological needs also known as physiological needs are the basic needs essential to survive. For     example:     food,     shelter,     clothing,     water,     air,     sleep,      sex,      etc. Security need also known as safety needs refers to protection against deprivation, danger and threat on or off the job.

65. What do you mean by social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs?

Social need or affiliation needs refers to affection, sense of belongingness, acceptance and friendship. Esteem needs are psychological in nature and represent the higher level needs. These needs include internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy and external factors such as  status, recognition, etc. Self-actualization needs are the highest level of need as per Maslow. Self-actualization needs are primarily related to personal growth, self-fulfillment and the realization of one's full potential.

66. List the hygiene factors.

The key hygiene factors as per Herzberg are listed below:

  • Company policy and administration
  • Relationship with supervisor
  • Work conditions
  • Salary
  • Relationship with peers
  • Personal life
  • Relationship with subordinates
  • Status
  • Security
67. Point out the weakness of need hierarchy theory.

The key weakness of need hierarchy theory is enlisted as follows:

  • Need hierarchy theory is not universal in nature.
  • It is not fully comprehensive.
  • Need hierarchy theory ignores simultaneous emergence of needs.
  • It ignores complex human behaviour.
68. Point out the weakness of two-factor theory

Weakness of two-factor theory 

The key weaknesses of two-factor theory are pointed as follows:

  • Two-factor theory drew conclusion from a limited experiment covering engineers and accountant.
  • There may not be -any direct cause and effect relationship between satisfaction and performance.
  • Two factor theory ignores situational variables.
  • The methodology used in two factor theory creates a bias among human beings at the time of giving answers.
69. List out the weakness of achievement theory.

The primary weaknesses of achievement model are enlisted as follows:

  • It is very difficult to teach or incorporate achievement motivation among the employees. This is so because acquisition of motives occurs in childhood.
  • Achievement motivation moreover is a temporary encouraged feeling, hence, even if it is created through training it won't last for long.
70. Point out the weakness of equity theory.

The key weaknesses of equity theory are enlisted as follows:

  • Equity theory overemphasizes conscious process and narrows 'its emphasis on visible  rewards.
  • Assessment of perception of employee is very difficult.
  • Moreover, equity theory is not precise enough to predict the probable actions.
71. Point out the limitations of expectancy theory.

The key limitations of expectancy theory are enlisted as follows:

  • Expectancy theory primarily focuses on conceptual determinants failing to provide specific suggestions.
  • Expectancy theory is one overly rational theory of motivation.
  • Moreover, it fails to suggest how motivational decisions are actually made.
72. Point out the advantages of equity theory.

The key advantages of equity theory are enlisted as follows:

  • It explains that everyone in the organization needs to understand the basis for rewards.
  • It explains the multifaceted view people have towards rewards.
  • It establishes the fact that people base their actions on their perceptions of reality.
73. State the characteristics of goal setting theory.

The primary characteristics of goal setting theory are enlisted as follows:

  • It suggests goal to be specific and clear.
  • Goals should be challenging and realistic in nature.
74. What is employee involvement program?

Employee involvement program is one of the widely used technique of motivation for performance. Also popularly known as participative management, employee involvement program focuses on involvement of employee in management activities. Employee involvement program is based On the viewpoint that effective results can be achieved with the help of employees if they are given participation in management.

75. What is charismatic leadership?

Charismatic theory of leadership primary focuses on the ability of a leader. As per this theory, effectiveness of leadership depends upon leader's ability to communicate new vision to its followers and make them aware of the value associated with goals.


76. What is leadership?

Leadership is defined as influence that is, the art or the process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically forward the achievement of group goals. In other words, leadership is the ability to influence people and provide an environment for them to achieve team or organizational objectives.

77. What does a leader do in a group?

Some of the key functions accomplished by leader in a group are enlisted as follows:

  • Leader acts as representative of follower 
  • Leader develops teamwork, motivates them
  • Leader uses power properly for the achievement of group goals.
  • Leaders manage resources of the organization in an efficient manner.
78. What do you mean by attribution theory of leadership?

Attribution theory of leadership is related with cause and effect relationships. As per this theory, people attribute event with a specific success. According to this theory, success of an organization generally depends upon the capabilities and motivation of the leader.

79. What do you mean by transactional theory of leadership?

Transactional theory of leadership explains the exchange relationship between leaders and followers. As per this theory, transactional leadership takes place when leaders and their followers are in some type of exchange relationship that satisfies need for one or both parties.

80. What do you mean by transformational theory of leadership?

One of the widely recognized theories of leadership is transformational theory. As per this theory, leaders guide their subordinates through establishment of goals which can be achieved through role identity and task environment.

81. Define behavior theories of leadership.

A behavior theory insists that success of leaders depends upon their behavior. As per this theory, leadership can be identified by reference to their activities and ,relation to their follower.

82. List the various theories of leadership.

There are number of 'leadership theories. Some of the widely accepted theories of leadership are enlisted as follows:

  • Trait theories of leadership
  • Behavioural theory of leadership
  • Contingency theory of leadership
  • Charismatic theory of leadership
  • Attribution theory of leadership
  • Transactional theory of leadership
  • Transformational theory of leadership
83. What do you mean by trait theories of leadership?

One of the earliest theories to be developed is trait theories of leadership. Trait theory suggests the fact that leaders are born, not made. As per trait theories of leadership, personal characteristics like physical, personality, and mental are associated with leadership success.

84. What do you mean by contingency theories of leadership?

One of the widely accepted theories of leadership is contingency theory. As per contingency theory, leadership effectiveness is related to the interplay of a leader's traits or behaviors and situational factors.

85. Differentiate between leaders and managers.

They are differentiated as follows:



An individual turns into leader based on his personal attributes.

An individual becomes manager based on his position.

Formal rights are not available to a leader.

Manager is provided numeral formal rights due to his position.

86. path-goal theory of leadership.

One of the key contingency theories of leadership is path-goal theory of leadership. According to path-goal theory ·of leadership, the primary job of leader is to provide path for their followers. In this reference, leader has to provide followers with the information, support or other necessary resources essential in achievement of goals.

87. Define communication.

Communication is the process by which a person, group or organization [the sender] transmits some types of information [the message] to another-person, groups or organization[the receiver]. In other words, communication is the transmission and reception of ideas, feelings and attitudes, both verbally and non-verbally, which gives rise to a response.

88. Enlist the key function of communication.

The key features of communication are enlisted as follows:

  • Communication is essential for manager to control subordinate’s behaviour.
  • Communication is often used by organization to motivate workers to give their best performance.
  • Communication provides opportunity to employees for emotional expression of their feeling.
  • Communication is key way to provide essential information for employee.
89. State the basic elements essential for a communication.

The basic elements essential for a communication are enlisted as follows:

  • Sender[source]
  • Encoding
  • Transmission
  • Decoding
  • Receiver
  • Feedback
  • Noise
90. What do you know by non-verbal communication?

The communication process that involves all elements of human communication but oral and written is termed as non-verbal communication. Some of the common forms of non-verbal communication in organizations are enlisted as follows:

  • Human elements [facial expressions, body language, etc. ]
  • Environmental elements [office design, building architecture, etc. ]
91. Differentiate between formal and informal communication.

They are differentiated as follows:

Formal communication

Informal communication

Communication through the channels of communication established formally by the management in an organization is termed as formal communication.

Communication based on social relationship rather than the organizational structure or job descriptions is termed as informal communication.

Formal communication is controlled by the management.

Informal communication is not controlled by the management.

92. Point out the different formal networks of communication.

The different formal networks of communication are enlisted as follows:

  • Chain network
  • Wheel network
  • Circle network
  • All channel network
93. Point out the different informal networks of communication.

The key informal networks of communication are enlisted as follows:

  • Single strand: Each tells one another.
  • Gossip: One tells all.
  • Probability: Each randomly tells others.
  • Cluster: Some tells selected others most typical.
94. What is oral communication?

Oral communication is the most popular method of communication. It is also known as verbal communication. Oral communication is done with the help of spoken words. Oral communication may be face to face or through mechanical devices like telephone or computer.


95. What is written communication?

When communication is conducted on written form such as letters, proposals, telegrams, faxes, brochure, etc. it is known as written communication. Written communication is verifiable and tangible in nature hence, carries a major significance in today’s business world.

96. List out the current issues in communication.

The current issues in communication are listed as follows:

  • Gender issue
  • Politically corrected communication
  • Cross culture
  • Electronic communication
  • Privacy
  • Silence as communication


97. List out the means of communication frequently used in offices.

The means of communication frequently used in offices are enlisted as follows:

§  Based on methods used

  • Oral
  • Written
  • Non-verbal

§  Based on direction

  • Vertical
  • Horizontal
  • Diagonal

§  Based on relationship

  • Formal
  • Informal
98. Point out the merits of written communication.

The key merits of written communication are enlisted as follows:

  • Written communication is permanent in nature and hence can be used for future reference.
  • Written communication minimizes the chances of misinterpretation, misrepresentation and distortion of information.
  • Written communication can be used as an evidence of events and activities.
  • Written communication is usually formal and authoritative in nature.
99. Point out the demerits of written communication.

The key demerits of written communication are enlisted as follows:

  • Written communication is time consuming and expensive in nature.
  • Written communication is often rigid and formal than necessity.
  • Written communication often lacks the immediate feedback. Hence, does not know if the receiver has understood or not.


100. Point out the merits of oral communication.

The key merits of oral communication are enlisted as follows:

  • Oral communication is least time consuming and inexpensive in nature.
  • Oral communication is direct and simple in nature.
  • Oral communication provides immediate feedback.
  • Oral communication generally helps to minimize delays and other unnecessary formalities.
101. Point out the demerits of oral communication.

The key demerits of oral communication are enlisted as follows:

  • Since there is no any provision of keeping any formal record, oral communication is often devoid of proof and hence may generate conflict.
  • It is very difficult to carryout oral communication in case of lengthy and distance communication
  • Barriers of communication are stronger in oral communication.
102. List out the advantages of grapevine communication.

The key advantages of grapevine communication are enlisted as follows:

  • Grapevine communication helps employees to have sense of their workplace.
  • Grapevine communication is a key way to communicate organizational stories and culture.
  • Grapevine communication helps to relieve anxiety and develops affiliation.
103. List out the disadvantages of grapevine communication.

The key disadvantages of grapevine communication are enlisted as follows:

  • Grapevine communication is a key way to spread false rumours and destructive information on organization.
  • Moreover, it is difficult to identity individual for false information spreading.
  • Grapevine communication often generates negative attitude towards management.
104. List the barriers for effective communication.

The key barriers for effective communication are enlisted as follows:

  • Human barriers: Emotions, mental abilities, biasness, etc.
  • Semantic barriers: Word interpretations, language translation, etc.
  • Physical barriers: Geographical distance, mechanical failures, etc.
  • Organizational barriers: Organizational structure, status, position, etc.
105. Sketch the communication process model.

It is sketched as follows:


106. What is lateral communication?

Lateral communication refers to the type of communication that takes place at same levels of hierarchy in an organization. For example, when communication takes place between managers at same levels, it is termed as lateral communication.

107. What is upward communication?

When the communication flows from lower level of organizational hierarchy to upward level it is known as upward communication. Subordinate often use upward communication technique to convey performance feedback and any probable problems to their superiors.

108. What do you mean by star [wheel] network?

The communication network in which all communication passes through central authority just like the hub of a wheel is known as star[wheel] network. In star network workers do not communicate with each other.


109. Define chain network.

The communication network that rigidly follows the formal chain of command is known as chain network. For example, when a senior manager communicates to manager whom then communicates to assistant manager and management trainee.

110. What do you mean by circle network?

The communication network where each member can communicate to the adjoining member is known as circle network. In this network, information flows in a circle so that each member is in a position to communicate with two persons.

111. What do you mean by all channel network?

When there is no restriction in the flow of communication among the member, such communication network is known as channel network. All channel network allows all group members to actively communicate with each other.


112. Define functional conflict.

The type of conflict that brings in positive consequences and supports the goal of the group is known as functional conflict. Functional conflict is thus a form of constructive conflict.

113. What is conflict?

Conflict is a situation in which two or more parties feel themselves in opposition. In other words, conflict is a process in which an effort is purpose fully made by one person or unit to block another that results in frustrating the attainment of other goals or the furthering of his or her interests.

114. Enumerate the nature of conflict.

The key features that enumerate the nature of conflicts are enlisted as follows:

  • There remain mutually exclusive goals;
  • There exists two type of perception;
  • There must be intentional effort;
  • Conflict exists either at the latent or overt level.
115. What are the major causes of conflict?

The major causes of conflict are listed below:

  • Inadequate communication;
  • Delayed information;
  • Effects of filtration;
  • Barriers of culture, language;
  • Inadequate training of sender and receiver;
  • Problem of noise
116. List out the different types of conflict.

The different types of conflict are enlisted as follows:


  • Intra-personal conflict (conflict within the individual)
  • Intra-personal conflict (conflict between two or more individual)
  • Inter-group conflict (conflict between different group)
  • Inter-organizational conflict (conflict between two dependent organizations)
117. What are the positive consequences of conflict?

The key positive consequences of conflict are enlisted as follows:

  • Conflicts is a major stimulant for change.
  • Conflict help to avoid group thinking.
  • Conflict fosters creativity and innovation.
  • Conflict often develops cohesion and satisfaction.
118. What are the negative consequences of conflict?

The key negative consequences of conflict are enlisted as follows:

  • Conflict is one of the key reasons of stress in people;
  • Conflict diversifies group time and energy in winning the conflict rather than the achievement of organizational goals;
  • Conflict brings tensions in the organization leading to instability and chaos.
119. Enlist the stages of conflict.

A general conflict process normally goes through five key stages enlisted as follows:

  • Stage 1: Potential opposition or incompatibility
  • Stage-2: Cognition and personalization
  • Stage-3: Intentions/conflict resolution style
  • Stage-4: Behaviour
  • Stage-5: Outcomes
120. What is inter-group conflict?

When the conflict involves two or more group it is known as inter-group conflict. For example: when whole marketing department is in conflict with production department, it is referred as inter-group conflict.

121. When conflict does not lead to solution of a problem, it is unproductive and investment of time and effort goes waste

When conflict does not lead to solution of a problem, it is unproductive and investment of time and effort goes waste.

b. It is undesirable if it creates a climate of distrust and suspicion among people, if some people feel defeated and if it develops antagonism instead of spirit of cooperation.

c. When management loses objectivity and treats disagreement as equivalent to disloyalty and rebellion, an opportunity for   creativity should be deemed to have been lost. It may even pour oil over troubled waters; exploit differences to strengthen itself and weaken other, and accept resolution capable of different interpretations.

d. In an attempt to find a solution, management may gloss over serious difference and suppress certain feelings which may except at inappropriate moments and hit safe targets.

e. In the event of a conflict, there may be intensification of internalization of sub unit goals which may result in the neglect of overall organizational goals.

The major forces for change are enlisted as follows:

1.External Force: It forces the organization to It includes:

  • Nature of the work force
  • Technology
  • Economic shocks
  • Competition

2. Internal Force: It forces the organization to adopt It includes:

  • Goal change
  • Internal change
  • Organizational structure


122. Define organizational change

Organizational change refers to any alteration in work environment that affects the ways in which employees must act. In other word, change refers to something which occurs to an organization, a group or an individual.

123. Define resistance to change

The obstacle faced by change from the resistant employees of the organization is known as resistance to change. Overcoming resistance to change is one of the most difficult tasks.

124. Enlist the major causes of resistance to change.

The major causes of resistance to change can be divided into two broad halves:

1. Individual resistance: It includes

  • Security
  • Habit
  • Fear of unknown


2. Organizational resistance: It includes

  • Group inertia
  • Structure inertia
  • Allocation of resources
125. Enlist the methods that help to overcome resistance to change.

The major methods are listed as follows:

  • Education and communication
  • Participation
  • Negotiation
  • Manipulating and cooperation
  • Coercion
  • Positive relationship
126. Write the Lewin's three-step model

The three steps of Lewin's change model is given below:

steps of Lewin's change model is given below:





127. Define organizational development.

A systematic method of introducing change is defined as organizational development. In other words, organizational development is the process of planed change and improvement of the organization through application of knowledge of the behavioural science.

128. List out the characteristics of OD.

The key characteristics of OD are listed as follows:

  • Long term effort
  • Broad change
  • Dynamic process
  • System approach
  • Research based
  • Support of top management
  • Team work
  • Goal oriented
129. What do you mean by OD values?

Organizational development is based on a certain set of ethics and morality, hence it is an value concept. The key points that determines the OD values are listed as follows:

  • Respect of people for people
  • Trust and support
  • Participation
  • Confrontation
130. Write the meaning of sensitivity training.

An interactive training that focuses on helping employees in the development of better awareness of potential and roles in organization is known as sensitivity training. In this training, aspects like dynamics, environment, need of change, etc. are addressed.

131. What is the process consultation?

It is one of the most common methods of process interventions. As per this method, external consultants are hired for the intervention process. The external consultant provides information, technique, etc. in regard to employee communication, interaction, cooperation, etc.

132. Define virtual team.

A team that consists of members who are separated by distance and connected by a computer is termed as virtual team. Members in virtual team communicate with each other online through internet.

133. What do you mean by group?

A group is defined as two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. In other words, a group is the largest set of two or more individuals who are jointly characterized by a network of relevant communication, a shared sense of collective identity and one shared dispositions with associated normative strength.

134. What are the important features of group?

The primary features of a group are enlisted as follows:

  • Collection of two or more people
  • Common goals or interest
  • Interaction and interdependence
  • Collective identity
  • A stable structure
  • Group norm and value
135. Define formal group.

When a group is defined on the basis of organizational structure with designated work assignments establishing task, it is termed as formal group. Formal group are created deliberately to perform the assigned task by managements. Formal group are mainly classified into two categories namely: command group and task group.

136. Define informal group.

When a group evolves spontaneously without being shown in the organization’s structure, with primary objective of fulfilling personal and social needs of its members, it is termed as informal group. Informal group is further classified into two groups namely: interest group and friendship group.

137. What do you mean by group dynamics?

Group dynamics refers to the social process by which people interact face-to-face in small groups. As the word dynamics comes from the Greek word meaning force, group dynamics refers to the study of forces operating within a group. Group dynamics is relevant in both formal and informal groups.

138. Define self-managed work team.

Self –managed work team refers to self-organized, semi-autonomous small group of employees whose members determine, plan and manage their day-to-day activities and duties under reduced or no supervision. Self-managed work teams are primarily based on work process rather than specialized departments as core work units.

139. List out the five major stages of group formation process.

The major stages of group formation are enlisted as follows:

  • Forming
  • Storming
  • Norming
  • Performing
  • Adjourning
140. State any four reasons why people join group.

From employees’ point of view                              





Form organizational point of view

Socialization of new employee

Getting the job done

Decision making


141. What is a cross functional team?

When a team is formed drawing members from different departments or functional areas, it is termed as cross functional group. Cross functional team are formed to solve problems that are normally unsolved by individuals departments. Once the problem is solved, cross-functional team normally disbanded.

142. Enlist few salient characteristics of a team.

The salient characteristics of team are enlisted as follows:

  • Team is generally small in size.
  • Team is generally formed to bring revolutionary change.
  • Team is associated with common goals.
  • Interaction is key essence of team.
  • Team creates friendship among the members.
143. Make a figurative presentation of the group development process.

It is given as follows:

144. Mention the major factors affecting inter-group relations.

The major factors affecting inter-group relations are enlisted as follows:

  • Composition of group (homogenous or heterogeneous)
  • Size
  • Frequency of interaction among group members clarity in goal (clear or ambiguous)
  • Development time
145. State the contingency variables affecting group behavior.

The key contingency variables affecting group behavior are enlisted as follows:

  1. External conditions imposed on the group
  • Organizational strategy
  • Formal regulations
  • Authority structure
  • Organizational structure
  • Human resource selection process

2. Group numbers resources

  • Abilities
  • Personality

3. Group structure

  • Formal leader
  • Roles
  • Norms
  • Group status, size and composition
146. What is social-loafing?

Social loafing is the tendency of group members to do less than they are capable of as individuals. Socials loafing explains the negative side if group size. As per social loafing, increase in group size is inversely related to individual performance.

147. What are the issues related to group decision making?

The major issues related to the group decision making are enlisted as follows:

  • Issues of time constraints
  • Issue of group polarization
  • Issue of group thinking
  • Issue of real participation
  • Issue of cost vs benefit
148. Enlist the types of group in organization.

The major types of group in an organization are enlisted as follows:

  • Formal group
  • Command group
  • Task group
  • Informal group
  • Interest group
  • Friend group
149. State the major causes of group shift in group decision making process.

The major causes of group shift in group decision making process are enlisted as follows:

  • When the group members exaggerate the situation.
  • When group tasks extreme decision with excitment.
  • When group members are influenced by extreme versions and altitudes.