The major personality attributes that influence organizational behavior are:
1. Locus of control:
It is degree to which individual believe they are masters of their own fate. Based on this attribute, people can be classified as:
a) Internals- Individuals who believe that they are masters of their own fate. They control what happens to them. They generally perform better on the job. They are achievement oriented and more satisfied with their work. They do well in managerial jobs.
b) Externals- Individuals who believe that their fate is controlled by outside forces. It can be chance or luck. They are less satisfied with the job. They have higher absenteeism. They are less involved in their job. They do well in routine jobs.
This trait aims to gain power and control over others. It is the degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means. Its motto is : “if it works, use it”.
Personality can be:
a) High Machs- manipulate more and win more. They are persuaded less, and persuade others more. Jobs that require bargaining skills and offer high rewards are suitable for high-mach. High machs flourish when:
There is face-to-face interaction.
Situation has minimum rules and regulations. There is room for improvisation.
Emotional involvements are irrelevant.
b) Low Machs- it is opposite of high matchs. They tend to be emotional. They do not manipulate for personal gains.
3. Self Esteem:
It is individual’s degree of liking or disliking of themselves. It is belief about one’s own worth. It is the way one feels about oneself.
High self-esteem individuals take risks. They have high job satisfaction through higher performance. They work for intrinsic rewards.
Low self-esteem individuals are concerned with pleasing other people. They look for security. They work for extrinsic rewards.
4. Self Monitoring:
It refers to an individual’s ability to adjust his behavior to situational factors.
Individuals high in self-monitoring are adaptable in adjusting their behavior to external factors. They can behave differently in different situations. They tend to be more mobile in jobs. They are capable to work with different types of people and organizations.
Individuals low in self-monitoring are high in behavioral consistency. They find it difficult to work in changing situations.
5. Risk Taking:
People differ in their willingness to take risks. Individuals can be high-risk taking and low-risk taking.
High-risk taking individuals tend to be speculative. They make quick decision with less information. The demands of the job determine the degree of risk. They work in risky situations.
Low-risk taking individuals avoid risk. They prefer to work in stable situations. They resist change.
6. Personality Type:
Individual can have Type A personality or Type B personality
Type A personality- They are:
- Always moving, walking, eating rapidly; have sense of time urgency.
- Feel impatient with rate of events; are competitive.
- Try to do two or more things at once.
- Avoid leisure time; are workholics devoted to work.
- Are obsessed with numbers.
Type B personality- They are:
- Lacking in sense of time urgency.
- Tend to keep their achievements to themselves. They are less competitive.
- Play for fun and relaxation.
- Can relax.
Type A individuals operate under stress, time pressure and deadlines. They emphasize quantity over quality. Type A individuals work long hours, make poor decisions, and are less creative. Their behavior is easier to predict.
Type B individuals are more successful in organizations and generally become boss in organizations.