Meaning and Definition of political Parties
A voluntary organization of people who believe in the same political ideology, aims, and programs of action is called political party. A party is a voluntary association which formulates the program that program is discussed in the parliament and majority members in which parliament carry the program into effect through the agencies of their leaders organized in a cabinet.
MacIver, “A political party is an association organized in support of some principle or policy which by constitutional means of endeavourers to make the determinant of government.”
Ian Robertson, “political parties are collectives of people organized for the specific purpose of joining legitimate control of government.”
Gil Christ, “A political party may be defined as an organized group of citizens who prefer to share the same political views and who by acting as a political unit try to control the government.”
Thus a political party is an organized group of people who share common political ideology, program, and policy to control the state power.
Essentials of political parties
- A group of people to constitute a political party, must be organized for the political purpose.
- There should be similarity of principles helping to unite people.
- The political parties should have the main aim of attaining political power.
- The parties should use peaceful and legitimate means of attaining political power.
- It becomes necessary for a political party to pronounce its main principles in public make equally known to the electorate its plans, programs, and the course of action which it is going to follow.
- The political parties which are found within the framework of the national boundaries are expected to protect and promote the national interest.
Functions of political party
- Political parties have the basic task of propagating their ideals, policies and programs.
- Political party should have contest and in election.
Political parties of Nepal
Nepal Communist Party (NCP)
- Nepal Communist party is the largest political party of Nepal.
- First of all Nepal communist party which is the first communist party of Nepal was established in 15 September 1949 under the leadership of Pushpalal.
- First conference was held in 2008 Manamohan became the Secretary
- Second conference was held in 2014 and Kesharjung Rayamajhi Mahamantri.
- Nepal communist party got 4 seats in the election of 2015 BS.
- Latter the communist party of Nepal was divided into several communist parties.
- The present Nepal Communist Party (NCP) is made after unifying two major communist parties which are as follows:
- Communist party Of Nepal (UML): The communist party of Nepal (UML) was the leading force of Nepali communist movement before 2075 Jestha 3.
- CPN (UML) was committed in constructing toe society of justice and equality with the idea of multiparty democracy and by eradicating feudalism and semi colonialism.
- Nepal communist party (Marxist) and Nepal communist Party (ML) merged on 22 Paush 2047 and Nepal communist party was formed.
- The communist party (UML) contest in the election of 2048 and won the 69 seats in parliament.
- Similarly in the Midterm election of 2051 UML won the 88 seats and became the largest party in the parliament.
- In the election of 2056 the communist party had got the second position.
- In the first election of Constituent assembly the communist party of Nepal (UML) became the third party.
- Second election of constituent assembly it stood in second position.
- Focus on the implementation for qualitative employment based education for creation of healthy human resources.
- Revolutionary change on national educational system to make it scientific.
- Promotion of women right in paternal property etc.
Role of UML
- It contributed in the establishment of democracy in 2007 BS.
- It contributed in the restoration of multiparty democracy in 2046 BS.
- It marched first steps in the security of aged people in the country in 2052.
- It played the crucial role in the peace building process of the country during the period between 2052 and 2062.
- It played the vital role in making constitution in constituent assembly etc.
The basic objectives of party were as follows:
- Establishment of People’s Republic under the principle of Bahudaliya Janabaad established by Madan Bhandari.
- Distribution of Land to the landless and small farmer in accordance to report prepared by high land commission.
- Promotion of privatization for only selected public enterprises.
Unified Communist party of Nepal (Maoist)
- Unified communist party of Nepal (Maoist) was a component of contemporary Nepal Communist Party (NCP).
- Unified communist party of Nepal (Maoist) was officially established on fourth February 1996 AD.
- Main Political philosophy of this party is communism and it used to believe in Marxism, Leninism and Maoism.
- Unified communist party of Nepal (Maoist) raised a armed revolution for nearly ten years In order to establish to federal republican state.
- Unified communist party of Nepal (Maoist) started armed revolution on 2 falgun 2052 BS.
- Finally they came to peace talk and declared n end to armed revolution.
- Unified communist party of Nepal (Maoist) took part in the first election of constituent assembly and became the largest political party in Nepal.
- In the election of second constituent assembly it became the third political party in Nepal and in the election of Parliament held in 2074 it, again became third largest party in the parliament.
Objectives of this party
- Removal of monarchy and promulgation of republican constitution.
- Establishment of people’s rule by wrecking the reactionary ruling system of Nepal.
- To direct the historical revolution against feudalism, imperialism and reformist.
- To establish justice for the back-warded indigenous and marginalized peoples of Nepal.
- Establishment of public private partnership policy in the economic development of the country.
- Removal of dominance of the feudal forces and capitalistic Democratic Party and grant full freedom to all the anti-feudal and anti-imperialistic party.
Role of Maoist
- Unified Nepal communist party (Maoist) played the determinant role in the establishment of republic country by wrecking the monarchy in the country.
- It played the great role in the constitution building process.
- It raised the issue of identity in Nepali society.
- It played the crucial role in the reduction of social discrimination in Nepali society.
- Nepali congress is the largest opposition party in Nepal. Nepali National Congress (2003 BS) and Nepal Democratic Congress (2005) merged on 27 Chaitra 2006 BS Merged and became Nepali Congress. Matrika Prasad Koirala Became the chairperson of this party.
- The conference held on 9 Jestha 2009 in Janakpur and BP koirala became the chairperson of this party.
- Main principle of this political party is the democratic socialism the principle propounded by the BP Koirala. It is the mass based party.
- Main objective of this party is to establish democratic socialism in the country.
- Nepali congress contested in election held in 2015 BS won the 74 seats out of 109 seats and BP Koirala became the prime Ministers Nepal. But the first elected democratic government became the victim of Royal coup and all political parties were banned by the King Mahendara and various political parties conducted their political activities underground.
- In the second election held on 2048 Nepali congress won the 110 seats out of 205 seats.
- Similarly Nepali congress won the 83 and in the election of 2056 Nepali congress stood in the first position and got simple majority.
- Nepali congress stood at the second in the election of constituent assembly held in 2064 and became the first in second election of constituent assebly.
- It became the second largest party in the election held in 2074 BS.
Role of Nepali congress
- The role of Nepali congress in the establishment of democracy is very crucial. In Nepal democracy is possible thorough the armed revolution conducted by Nepali congress in 2007 BS.
- Similarly Nepali congress played a great role in restoration of multiparty democracy in 2046 BS.
- The Nepali Congress and the then chairperson Girija Prasad Koirala played great role in peace building and constitution building process.
Sanghiya Samajbadi forum
- Federal socialistic forum is another political party of Nepal.
- It is developed after the unification of Madhesi jana Adhikar Forum and Sanghiya samajbadi party.
- MJF initially was not political party but a political advocacy movement demanding ethnic self-determination rights with the formation of Madhes autonomous region.
- This party believes in an election system based on the proportional representation and setting of federal republic in Nepal.
- Main principle of this party are social democracy, Rights of Madhesi people and ethnic group of Nepal, Federalism, Self-determination rights etc.
Role of SSF Nepal
- This party played crucial role in establishment of rights of Madhesi party and ethnic group of Nepal.
- It raised the issue of identity in Nepal thorough the social movement in Nepal.
- It played the vital role in the establishment federal and secular state.
Administrative Division of Nepal
- At present, Nepal is divided into three layers administratively.
- Especially Administrative of Nepal is divided into Federal state Level (Central Level), Provincial and local level administration.
- The Administrative structure of Nepal is Federal, Provincial and local.
Central level Administrative
- Central level administrative is also known as the federal government which conducted daily administration of the country.
- In a broad sense Central level administration includes executives, Legislature and Judicial administration but in a narrow sense it only includes executive body.
- Council of minister is the executive body of Nepal and the responsibility of provide general directives, control and enforcement regarding the governance system of Nepal is the main duty of Council of ministers.
- Provision of about federal executives is made in the part 7 of the constitution of Nepal 2072 BS.
Formation of Council of ministers
- The president appoints leader of parliamentary party with the majority as the prime minister and the council of ministers forms in his or her leadership.
- If there is not majority of single party in parliament the president appoints prime minister to the Member of Parliament who can have the majority with the support of other party.
- In this condition the prime ministers have to get vote of confidence within 30 days of appointment.
- If the government could not formed above condition, the president appoints prime Minister to the leader of largest party in the parliament and s/he also have to get vote of confidence within the 30 days of his her appointment.
- Council of Ministers shall form by the president on the recommendation of Prime Minister.