The RTC_A module has calibration logic that allows for adjusting the crystal frequency in approximately +4-ppm or –2-ppm steps, allowing for higher time-keeping accuracy than standard crystals. The RTCCAL bits are used to adjust the frequency. When RTCCALS is set, each RTCCAL LSB causes a ≈ +4-ppm adjustment. When RTCCALS is cleared, each RTCCAL LSB causes a ≈ –2-ppm adjustment. Calibration is available only in calendar mode. In counter mode (RTCMODE = 0), the calibration logic is disabled.

Calibration is accomplished by periodically adjusting the RT1PS counter based on the RTCCALS and RTCCALx settings. In calendar mode, the RT0PS divides the nominal 37268- Hz low-frequency (LF) crystal clock input by 256. A 64-minute period has 32768 cycles/sec × 60 sec/min × 64 min = 125829120 cycles. Therefore a –2-ppm reduction in frequency (down calibration) approximately equates to adding an additional 256 cycles every 125829120 cycles (256/125829120 = 2.035 ppm). This is accomplished by holding the RT1PS counter for one additional clock of the RT0PS output within a 64-minute period.

Similarly, a +4-ppm increase in frequency (up calibration) approximately equates to removing 512 cycles every 125829120 cycles (512/125829120 = 4.069 ppm). This is accomplished by incrementing the RT1PS counter for two additional clocks of the RT0PS output within a 64-minute period. Each RTCCALx calibration bit causes either 256 LF crystal clock cycles to be added every 64 minutes or 512 LF crystal clock cycles to be subtracted every 64 minutes, giving a frequency adjustment of approximately –2 ppm or +4 ppm, respectively.

To calibrate the frequency, the RTCCLK output signal is available at a pin. The RTCCALF bits can be used to select the frequency rate of the RTCCLK output signal, either no signal, 512 Hz, 256 Hz, or 1 Hz.

The basic flow to calibrate the frequency is as follows:

- Configure the RTCCLK pin.
- Measure the RTCCLK output signal with an appropriate resolution frequency counter; that is, within the resolution required.
- Compute the absolute error in ppm: Absolute Error (ppm) = |106 × ( fMEASURED fRTCCLK) / fRTCCLK|, where fRTCCLK is the expected frequency of 512 Hz, 256 Hz, or 1 Hz.
- Adjust the frequency, by performing the following:

- If the frequency is too low, set RTCALS = 1 and apply the appropriate RTCCALx bits, where RTCCALx = (Absolute Error) / 4.069, rounded to the nearest integer.
- If the frequency is too high, clear RTCALS = 0 and applies the appropriate RTCCALx bits, where RTCCALx = (Absolute Error) / 2.035, rounded to the nearest integer.

For example, assume that RTCCLK is output at a frequency of 512 Hz. The measured RTCCLK is 511.9658 Hz. The frequency error is approximately 66.8 ppm low. To increase the frequency by 66.8 ppm,

RTCCALS would be set, and RTCCAL would be set to 16 (66.8/4.069). Similarly, assume that the measured RTCCLK is 512.0125 Hz. The frequency error is approximately 24.4 ppm high. To decrease the frequency by 24.4 ppm, RTCCALS would be cleared, and RTCCAL would be set to 12 (24.4 / 2.035).

The calibration corrects only initial offsets and does not adjust for temperature and aging effects. This can be handled by periodically measuring temperature and using the crystal's characteristic curve to adjust the ppm based on temperature as required. In counter mode (RTCMODE = 0), the calibration logic is disabled.

**RTC_A Registers**

The RTC_A module registers are listed in and Table 22-1. The base register for the RTC_A module registers can be found in the device-specific data sheet.