Reasoning plays a significant role in adjusting to one’s environment. It not only controls one’s cognitive activities, but also the total behavior and personality is affected by the proper or improper development of one’s reasoning ability.

Reasoning is step-wise thinking with a purpose or goal in mind. Reasoning is the term applied to highly purposeful controlled selective thinking. Reasoning is the word used to describe the mental recognition of cause-and –effect relationships.

According to Munn, “Reasoning is combining past experiences in order to solve a problem which cannot be solved by mere reproduction of earlier solution”.

Types Of Reasoning

1. Inductive reasoning: (Particular to general)

In this type of reasoning, we usually follow the process of induction. Induction is a way of providing a statement or generalizing or rules by specific cases to general conclusion.

2. Deductive reasoning : (General to particular)

Deductive reasoning is just opposite to inductive reasoning. Here, one’s start completely agreeing with some already discovered, or per-establish generalized fact or principle tries to apply it to particular cases.

Problem Solving

Problem solving as a deliberate in serious act, involve the use of scientific method, higher thinking and systematic step for the realization of the set goals.

According to Skinner (1968) “ Problem solving is a process of overcoming difficulties that appear to interface with the specific goals”.

Scientific Method of Problem Solving

Problem identification:(The first step in the problem solving behavior of an individual concerned is identification or awareness of the difficulty or problems that need a solution such as psychological, economic, political, and socio-cultural problems)

Problem understanding:(The problem felt by the individual should be properly identified by a careful analysis: Concept, theory, and previous experienced)

Collection of the relevant information:(In this step, the individual is required to collect all the relevant information about the problem through all possible sources: cause and effect relationship, variable or facts)

Formulation of hypothesis (In the light of the collected relevant information and nature of this problem, one may in some serious cognitive activities to think of the various possibilities for the solution of this problems.)

Selection of a proper solution: (In this important step, all the possible solution, through out of in the previous step are closely analyzed and evaluate: follow systematic and scientific method)

Verification of concluded solution or testing hypothesis: (The solution arrived at conclusion draw most be further verified by utilizing it in the solution of the various problems: test hypothesis)

Obstacle in Problem Solving Methods

  1. Mental set and habit
  2. Functional fixedness
  3. Information bias
  4. Irrelevant information
  5. Over confidence
  6. Representation bias.


Creativity is the ability to produce ideas. It is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed. Creativity is the ability and disposition to produce novelty. Creativity as ability( Knowledge, idea, perception, past experience etc).

Relation to intelligence( Education, concept and idea). Creativity as process ( Lifelong and continuous process)

Decision Making

In psychology, decision making is a cognitive ability related to specific issues. It is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Every decision making process produce a final choice. Decision making is the process of choosing between two or more alternatives. Individual make choices based on their personal performance, values and goals. Every decision has a outcome and involve risk.

Stages of Decision Making

  1. Identify your goals
  2. Gather information
  3. Consider the consequences
  4. Make your decision
  5. Evaluate your decision