• At the beginning of a transmission, the sender's window contains n-l frames.
• As the frames are sent by source, the left boundary of the window moves inward, shrinking the size of window. This means if window size is w, if four frames are sent by source after the last acknowledgment, then the number of frames left in window is w-4.
• When the receiver sends an ACK, the source's window expand i.e. (right boundary moves outward) to allow in a number of new frames equal to the number of frames acknowledged by that ACK.
• For example, Let the window size is 7 (see diagram (a)), if frames 0 through 3 have been sent and no acknowledgment has been received, then the sender's window contains three frames - 4,5,6.
• Now, if an ACK numbered 3 is received by source, it means three frames (0, 1, 2) have been received by receiver and are undamaged.
• The sender's window will now expand to include the next three frames in its At this point the sender's window will contain six frames (4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 1). (See diagram (b)).