Top 5 Major Functions of Management

Here is the Top 5 Major Functions of Management. As stated earlier, Management is what management does. It indicates a functional approach to management and focuses on specific managerial tasks.

Just as different management experts have defined management differently, they have classified managerial tasks differently.

The main reason for this is that various experts have discussed management tasks by studying various organizations and from different angles.

Top Major Functions of Management


However, to get things done by others needs leading of human behavior which has been called as commanding motivating, communicating or directing by various authors.

Some authors have introduced staffing function by splitting the social aspect of organizing because the human resources have acquired great importance in organization.

By making staffing a separate function facilitates placing an even great emphasis on human element in selection and development. Thus, the managerial functions are:

  1. Planning
  2. Organizing
  3. Staffing
  4. Leading
  5. Controlling

(1) Planning

Planning is a basic managerial function without which no other functions of management can be performed. It is related to determining the course of action to achieve and achieve these goals. What to do, this is a decision already. When to do it, how to do it, and who will do special work.

Hence, planning is thinking before doing. It involves selecting of goals and strategies, policies, programs and procedures for achieving them. All managers at every level of management perform planning.

It is a prerequisite of doing anything. A good plan is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human and non-human resources in order to achieve per-determined goals.

This is based on the future situation and the projections of success of a plan, so it is contained in the manager’s ability to accurately predict the future. Thus, forecasting is an inseparable part of planning.

(2) Organizing

Organization has a major role in implementing plans successfully. The organizational activities can be defined as identifying and grouping activities, they can be assigned between individuals and the right-of-responsibility relationship can be made between them.

It is the collection and integration of various factors required to achieve planned goals.

According to Fayol – “to organize a business is to provide it with everything useful to its functioning raw materials, tools, capital, and personnel”. It involves the following processes:

  • Determining and defining the activities involved in down by the management
  • Grouping the activities in a logical pattern;
  • Assigning the activities to specific positions and people
  • Determination of delegation authority and responsibility to fulfill such assigned duties.
  • Coordination of these activities and authority relations.

Organizing the event helps in increasing efficiency and reducing operating costs through the recurrence of activities and avoid repetition.

(3) Staffing

Staffing is concerned with human resources. It aims to fit individuals and jobs in the organization structure by appointing capable and qualified persons for jobs. An organization cannot be operated without personnel.

According to Koontz and O’Donnell -“The managerial function of staffing involves manning the organizational structure through proper and effective selection appraisal and development of personnel to fill the roles designed structure”.

Hence, staffing is concerned with:

  • Determining manpower requirements
  • Recruiting, selecting and training people to perform those jobs effectively and efficiently
  • Appraisal, promotion and transfer of personnel.
  • Proper remuneration.

This shows that the Staffing Function includes assessment of the manpower, recruitment, selection, training, development and evaluation of personnel.

(4) Leading

Once objectives/goals have been developed and the organizational structure has been designed and staffed, the next step is to begin to move towards the goals/objectives.

The leading function serves this purpose. Some times called directing or  motivating, leading involves influencing members of the organization to perform in ways that accomplish the organization’s objectives.

Leading can be defined as the management work of directing, influencing and motivating human resources for achieving organizational goals.


This involves directing, influencing and motivating employees to do the necessary work.
Leading can be defined as the management work of directing, influencing and motivating human resources for achieving organizational goals.

This involves directing, influencing and motivating employees to do the necessary work.

The leading function focuses directly on the people in the organization, since its major purpose is to channel human behavior towards accomplishing organizational goals.

While functions like planning, organizing. and staffing are merely preparations for doing work, the leading function actually starts the work. It initiates organized action. It is mainly done with the mutual aspect of management.

All managers will agree that their most important problems arise from the people – their desires and attitudes, their behavior in the form of individuals and in groups.

Effective leadership is highly prized ability in organization For some managers it is very difficult to develop leadership spite of poor plans or poor organizations.

(5) Controlling

Controlling is related to all other management functions. It is the process of measuring and comparing operating results with the plans and taking corrective action when results deviate from plans.

Hence, it is essential for achieving organizational goals. Control system provides standards for monitoring and evaluating the use of resources. Controlling involves the following sub-functions.

  • Determination of standards for measuring works performance
  •  Measuring the actual performance.
  • Comparing actual performance with the standards.
  • Finding the variances and deviations between the two and reasons for them.
  • Taking corrective actions to ensure attainment of goals.

If planning is looking ahead, controlling is looking back. Hence, there is no control without plans and plans without control means no achievement.

The functions of management- planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling are universally applicable to all organizations.

In short management involves (a) managing the organization. (b) managing the managers, and (e) managing the the like for It workers and the work.

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