There are two types of training methods i.e.
- On-the –job training: A training which is given to the employees while they are conducting their regular work at their own job place is known as on-the-job It includes,
- Apprenticeship training: It is a structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training. It is widely used to train individual for many occupations like electrician, plumber, iron-workers Under this method of training the trainee is put under the guidance of the master worker. Usually, the apprenticeship period is for two to four years as per the work complexity and under this period, the trainee is paid less than fully qualified workers.
- Job instruction training (JIT): JIT is a step by step training program, under which each job basic task along with key point is listed. The steps show what is to be done, and the key points show how it is to be done and The four basic steps of JIT are:
- Preparing the trainees by telling them about the job and overcoming
- Presenting the instruction, giving essential information in a clear
- Having the trainees’ tryout the job to demonstrate their understanding.
- Placing the workers into the job, on their own, with a designated resource person to call upon when they need assistance.
Advantages of on-the –Job training:
- It is relatively inexpensive than off the job training
- Trainees learn by doing and get quick feedback on their performance.
- Employees can begin to contribute to the production process while undergoing the training.
- It is a very simple method and employees experience the real job situation.
Disadvantages of on the job training:
- Chances of damage to equipment during the training period.
- Scrap rate and reject rate of the products may high.
- Service quality to customer may be affected when a new employee in the training period provides (e.g. In restaurant and in banking work)
2. Off-the-job training: The training organize outside the worksite is known as off the job Usually it is classroom based and assumes to remove the work-stress and achieve effective learning. The most commonly used off the job training methods are :
- Class room Lecture or conference: It is the method of delivering the information through oral means. It is quick and simple way to provide knowledge and information to large group of Under this method, a trainer discusses theoretical aspects of information related to the job.
- Films: Motion picture can also be used for providing training to the Usually it is used with conference discussion to clarify and enlarge those points that are basic requirement and key point (activities) for job performance.
- Simulation exercise: Any training activity that explicitly places the trainees in an artificial environment that closely mirrors actual working condition can be considered a It includes, computer modeling, experiential exercises and vestibule training.
- Experiential exercises: It is usually short, structured learning experiences where individual learn by doing. E.g. managing conflict in an organization: An artificial conflict situation is created and employees have to deal with it, and develop a resolution for it. After completing the exercise, the facilitator discusses what happen and introduce theoretical concept to help explain the members’ behavior during the exercise.
- Computer modeling: Complex computer modeling stimulates the work environment by programming a computer to imitate some of the realities of the job. It is widely used by airlines in the training of pilots. An error during a simulation offers an opportunity to learn through one’s mistake.
- Vestibule training: In vestibule training, employee learns their job on the equipment they will be using, but the training is conducted away from the actual work-floor. Usually, the vestibule lab that stimulated the actual workplace environment is created, under which, the trainees train. It allows employees to get a full feel for doing task without “real world” pressure.
4.Programmed Instruction: Under this technique, the program to be learned is highly organized with logical sequences that require the trainee to response and giving the learner immediate feedback on the accuracy of his/her answers. It is the step by step process that follows the following steps.
- Presenting questions, facts or problems to the learners
- Allowing the person to respond
- Providing feedback on the accuracy of the answers
Advantages of off the job training:
- Large number of employees can be trained through this method
- The trainee will learn without the work-pressure of the job
- Costly errors and injuries can be avoided during training
- Relatively less time is required as in on the job training
Disadvantages of off the job training:
- Due to large number of trainee, specific job need of the trainee may not be fulfilled.
- Due to lack of real working places, there may be low degree of involvement by employees, both mentally and physically.
- It is not useful for developing interpersonal skills.
- It is relatively costly than on the job training.