Here we learn about the What is Management? Definitions Meaning and Features of the Management. Every human being has several needs and desires. But no one can fulfill all their needs alone. Therefore, people work groups to meet their mutual needs.
Moreover, man is a social being, who likes to live and work in a group. Groups can achieve their goals only if the efforts of people working together are properly coordinated and controlled.
Thus, the task of achieving goals through coordination and control of other people's activities is known as management.
Peter Drucker believes that management work is to make people productive. Managerial efficiency is essential for, becoming competitive in the national and international area. The word 'management' can be explained as It means managing men tactfully to get things done. In order for men, one has to understand the unpredictable human nature tactfully. Hence, it is very complicated and challenging manage activity.
The word management is defined in many ways. Views differ on the subject and it is difficult to find out any uniformity among them.
Some define management as a process comprising specific functions such as planning, organizing staffing, leading, and controlling.
Management is also a discipline, which involves the study of certain principles and are also persons who regard management as a group of the person charged with the responsibility of running a business.
What is Management? Definitions
Some of the important definitions of management are given below:
(1) Harold Koontz: Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups
(2) S. George: Management consists of getting things one through others. The manager is one who accomplishes the objectives by directing the efforts of others.
Meaning of Management
The Human has analyzed the term management in three senses/concepts:
- as a process
- as a discipline
- as a noun.
Here, we shall briefly explain each of these.
1. Management as a Process
Many Scholars have defined management as a process. When used a process, management refers to the series of interrelated functions, which are performed by managers to make productive use of materials and human resources.
The process engagement involves the determination of objectives and putting them into action. Hence, management is the process of planning organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling the efforts of of an organizational members to accomplish the objectives organization.
Management process is not a series of separate mutually independent functions. In practice, a manager oft performs many of these functions simultaneously. This concept most popular and appropriate because management is what the managers do. It has the following advantages:
- It is very simple and easy to understand
- It indicates the functions of management
- It recognizes management as a universal process
2. Management as a Discipline
A discipline may be defined as a branch of knowledge or subject of instruction. When used as discipline, management is a specialized branch of human knowledge, which involves the study of principles and practices of management. It is a subject of study which is now formally taught in campuses and universities Management has acquired the status of a discipline because of the following two reasons.
- The scholars in the field of management are carrying out a lot of research. The results of the research will be useful for future managers.
- It is a the socialized body of knowledge, which is studied and practiced in management institutions.
Management is comparatively new discipline but it growing at a great pace. As a discipline, the popularity of management can be judged by the huge crowd for admission in institutions which provide education and training in management.
It is an applied discipline, which is inter-disciplinary in nature because it involves the study and application of knowledge drawn from Economics, Mathematics, Psychology, Sociology, and other disciplines.
With the increasing size of the organizations, growing specialization. sophisticated technology, cut throat competition, and other challenges, the importance of management as a discipline is growing .
3. Management as a Noun
When management is used as a noun, it refers to all managerial personnel of an organization who have policy making supervisory and controlling responsibility for achieving organizational goals. It is a collective noun consisting of Board of Directors, Managing Director, General Manager, Department Heads, Supervisors, etc.
Thus, when we say management of Himalayan Bank is good. we are referring the persons who are managing the organization. It may be said that all those who direct the work of others are part of management.
There are some that describe management as a technique of leadership and decision making or a means of coordination Though used in different senses, the term management as a process is most popular.
Drucker stress three jobs of management:
- managing a business
- managing a manager. and
- managing workers and work
Even if one is omitted, we would not have management any more and we also would not have a business enterprise or an industrial society. The manager requires balancing and harmonizing three major function of business enterprise. Hence, a the manager is a dynamic and life giving element in every business.
Without efficient management, we cannot secure the best allocation and utilization of human, material, and financial resources. An analysis of the above definitions makes it clear that management has been viewed differently stressing on the different aspect of management.
However, it is clear that management is a the process of getting things done through others to attain organizational goals. In its broadest sense, management can be regarded as:
- Formulation of plans, policies and programmers,
- Securing men, material and machinery cheaply,
- Putting all of them into operation through the sound organization,
- Leading and the men at work
- Supervising and controlling their performance
- Providing maximum satisfaction and service to employer, employees and public at large
In short, "Management is managing people and other resources in the organization for achieving the goals of the organization." It is nothing but managing people with tact and managing people for achieving goals.
The concept of management exists in all organizations seeking to attain goals. The nature of management varies, but all organizations have a managerial structure.
Features or Characteristics of Management
An analysis of the above definitions of management reveals certain features and characteristics of management. Such features are as follows
1) Management is Goal-Oriented :
Management is a means to achieve predetermined goals. All managerial activities are systematically directed in the accomplishment of such goals. Management has no justification to exist without goals. Effective management is always management by objective.
The basic goal of management is to maximize the efficiency and economy of human efforts. The success of management is measured to the extent that the targets achieved are achieved. Therefore, management is goal-oriented.
2) Management is a Group Activity:
Management cannot be done in isolation. It always refers to Whenever there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management becomes essential. A group can achieve the goals or objectives of an organization more easily and effectively than a person.
3) It is a Distinct Process:
Management is a distinct process performed to accomplish organizational goals by the use of human and material resources.
4) Management is a Universal Activity:
Management is required in all types of organization. Wherever there is a human activity there is a management. The basic principles of management are applicable in business as well in other organizations.
These principles are flexible and are modified according to the needs and environment of the organization
5) Management is an Integrating Process:
The essence of management is the integration of human and other resources for effective performance. It integrates men's, machines and materials in order to achieve set goals.
The responsibility of management is welding the three factor men, methods and machinery into a single working facto.
6) Management is a Social Process:
Management is a social process because it consists of getting things done through others. This involves dealing with people. The efforts of human beings have to be directed, coordinated and regulated by management.
Apart from this, management has a social obligation to maximize the use of rare resources for the benefit of the community.
7) Management is Both Science and Art:
Management is a science because it has developed certain principles that are of universal application. It is also an art because management results depend on the individual skills of managers.
The manager's art is essential to make the best management science. Therefore, it is both science and art.
8) Management is a Profession:
Management is now regarded as a profession. It has a systematic and specialized body of knowledge, principles and techniques, which can be taught along with practice.
With the increase in joint stock companies, and multinationals, management has been entrusted to the management of professional managers.
9) Management is Multidisciplinary Discipline:
Management draws knowledge and concepts from other disciplines such as economics, psychology, sociology, statistical operation research, etc.
Management integrates ideas and concepts taken from other disciplines and uses them in organization management.
10) Management is Intangible:
Management is unseen forces but its results are apparent. The effectiveness of management is judged on the basis of the final results, although operations can not be seen.
11) Management is Dynamic:
Management is a dynamic function and it has to be performed continuously. It operates in an ever-changing environment. Management adapts itself to environmental changes and also introduces innovation in methodology.
MANAGEMENT is : SCIENCE, ART OR PROFESSION
The controversy, whether the management is a science or an art is very old which still exists.
According to J. Paul Gety "Management cannot be systematized, or practiced according to a formula. it is an art, even a creative art". Others disagree. It is said that, "The management is the oldest of arts and the youngest of sciences".
Some scholars consider management to be a science, some others as an art and still others as a profession. Thus, the true nature of management will be clear after analyzing whether management is a science, an art or a profession.
1) Management as a Science
Science is a systematized body of knowledge gathered by observation and experiment, which is verifiable. The essential features of science are as follows.
- Principles are universally applicable
- Developed through scientific inquiry or experiments
- Established cause-and-effect relationships between various factors.
- Their validity can be verified and predictable.
Management does satisfy the basic features of science. Management contains a systematized body of knowledge in the form of general principles, which can be universally applied. These principles are also based on scientific enquiry and investigation.
They have been developed through experiments and practical experiences. The principles of management also establish cause and effect relationship between different variables.
They can also be tested for their validity. Moreover, the future events can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by using scientific principles. Thus, management is undoubtedly a science. However. it is not an exact science as physics, chemistry, and other physical sciences.
This is because management deals with people and it is difficult to predict accurately the behavior of human beings Hence, management is behavior science. It is an inter-disciplinary science that has been developed with the aid of other disciplines such as economics, mathematics, statistics, psychology, sociology etc. That is why management is a social science.
2) Management as an Art
Art means application of knowledge and skills to bring about the desired results. Management is one of the most 'creative art' as it requires a vast knowledge and certain innovating, initiating, implementing, and integrating skills in relation to goods, resources, techniques, and results.
In fact, the function of an art is to accomplish goals by deliberate efforts. The essential elements of art are as follows:
- Practical knowledge
- Personal skill
- Result-oriented approach
- Improvement through continuous practice
Management satisfies also the basic features of art. An artist must not only learn the theory but also its application in practice. Similarly, a person cannot become a successful manager simply by reading theory and getting a degree in management.
He must also learn to apply his knowledge in solving managerial problems. Every manager has his individual approach and style in solving managerial problems. It requires certain knowledge and skills to achieve desired results. A manager uses man, money, materials and machinery to promote the growth of his organization.
A manager is an artist because he applies the knowledge gained from the study of science of management for managing human and material resources. A person cannot be called manager if he does not have the skills to apply the knowledge of management.
3) Management as a Profession
The rapid development of business and the separation of ownership and management in the organization have contributed to the emergence of management as a distinct profession. To discuss whether management is a profession or not, it would be relevant to have a clear understanding of the essential features of profession.
The profession is an occupation, which involves the rendering of personal service of a special and expert nature. In order to practice their profession they must have minimum academic and professional qualifications prescribed by law or by the related professional associations.
The essential features of a profession are as follows:
- Organized and specialized knowledge
- Formal education and training
- Service motive
- Professional association and
- Ethical codes
Now, let us examine to what extent management fulfills the above requirements of a profession :
(i) Organized and Specialized Knowledge: Profession emerges from the establishment of an organized and specialized knowledge, which can be studied. It is true for all professions, including management.
During the last five-six decades there has been a constant and steady growth of management techniques, principles and skills. Today, management is a separate discipline having a specialized and organized body of knowledge.
(ii) Formal Education and Training: Profession requires a formal education and training i specific area. No one can practice a profession without going through the prescribed course.
Many institutes of management have been set up in foreign countries, which offer courses for specialized training in management. Formal education and training have become very helpful in getting jobs as managers. However. no minimum qualifications or course of study have been prescribed for managers by law.
(iii) Service Motive: A profession is a source of livelihood primarily motivated by the desire to serve the community. Due to their expert knowledge they are always in a position to charge higher fees.
They not at the cost of social interests. The success of profession cannot be measured in terms of money. Therefore, a profession enjoys high community respect.
Management is an integrating agency which integrates various resources and converts them into productive units. This is a major contribution of the management to the society, which cannot be measured in terms of money alone.
(iv) Professional Association: In every profession there is a statutory association or institution which regulates that profession. The association is a representative body, which regulate and develop the profession and prescribe the criteria for individuals entering the profession.
In management also, association has been formed for the regular exchange of knowledge and experience. However, they do not have the statutory power to regulate the activities of managers Membership of this association is not compulsory in order to become a manager. Hence, the management does not satisfy this criteria of profession.
(v) Ethical Codes: A profession must possess some ethical standards of conduct for its members, which contains rules and regulations providing the norms of honesty, integrity and professional ethics.
Any member violating the code can be punished and his. membership can be canceled. But there are no enforced ethical codes in the field of management. Association is established for the purpose of exchanging experience and skills. No membership is required to be a manager. So, management does not satisfy this feature of a profession.
From the above discussion, it is very clear that the management does not satisfy all the features of a profession. Like other professions, management does not restrict the entry into managerial job to people. No minimum qualifications have yet been prescribed for managerial personnel.
No management association has the authority to grant certificates of practice. In the absence of statutory association, ethical codes are also missing Thus. management is not strictly a full-fledged profession like medicine, law or chartered accountancy.
Even though. it does not satisfy all the features of profession, it is treated as a separate an distinguished profession now-a-days. At present a large number of new graduates are attracted to this field. Certainly there is a social recognition to the management as a profession.