Janga Bahadur Rana
Junga Bahasur was the second son of Kaji Bala Narasingha Kunwar and his actual name was Bir Narsingha Kunwar. He was born in 1874 BS. It was his maternal uncle who called him Junga Bahadur. He was the fond of sports, and fights and he was adventurous man.
Reforms of Junga Bahadur
- He made judicial reforms. He repealed the old law and made a new law.
- He set up new work shop for repairing guns, cannon, and rifles and also started some new factories.
- He made many good roads and also repaired to facilitate the communication.
- For the collection of Land revenue he appointed landlords and chaudharis in the districts of Terai and introduced new way of revenue collection.
- He made regulations for the preservation of Hindu temples and Buddhists shrines.
- A government notice was issued, which required the taking of records of birth and death from every house.
- A survey of Nepal-Tibet route was made and a map was prepared.
- He spent a good amount of money to make ponds and wells.
He formed an idea of establishing parliamentary system of government in Nepal, with the king as the constitutional head of the state. But he had to surrender before fulfilling his desire of establishing parliamentary system. During his period Gorkapatra was started as a weekly newspaper at first. He introduced the system of mid-day gun fire at Tundikhel. He established the primary pathshala in different localities. He put the suggestions box in different places asking suggestions in the matters of administrations.
Among the Rana rulers of Nepal, Chandra Shamsher was the most experienced man. He ruled Nepal about 29 years. He had a good relations with china and Tibet. Nepal was regularly sending present to the Chinese emperor, in return for this, Chinese emperor also sent valuable presents to Nepal.
Works of Chandra Shamser
Education: - For higher education he established Tri-chandra College and affiliated with Patna University. Durbar high school was also made open to the general people for study.
Language and Literature: - Gorkha Bhasha prakashini samiti was established in 1969 BS. SIt did much to raise the standard of Nepalese language.
Developmental activities: - He made power house at Pharping which supplied electricity to the town.
- To facilitate transportation and communication he installed ropeway from Dhursing to Matatirth. He constructed many bridges over many streams and rivers.
- He made supply of drinking water at Dhankuta and Pokhara.
- He established military Hospital for the medical treatment of the military personnel
- He prohibited the import of foreign Liquor and control over opium and hemp etc.
Administrative and Judicial works: - He made reforms in Military, Police and CID departments.
- As a measure of judicial reform he replaced some of old laws and made new one.
- He established two separate court dealing with civil cases and criminal cases.
- He made a land survey of the whole kingdom.
Abolition of Sati system: - He abolished the sati system completely. Junga Bahadur, Bir shamser, and Dev Shamser had also tried to abolish sati system but they were partially successful.
Emancipation of slaves: - He abolished slavery system.
He established a separate department for this work. He appealed to the public to help and cooperate with him in this great work of human liberty. Nearly fifty two thousand slaves were emancipated at the cost of Rs. 36, 70,000. It was paid out of the fund of Pashupatinath.
Mohan Shamser was the last prime minister of Rana rule. Before being prime minister, he had occupied the Singha Durbar. This shwos that he was very impatient and in hurry to become the prime minister.
Causes of fall of Rana.
- Political causes:- Revolution, autocracy,
- Economic causes:- Economic Disparity, Inequality
- Social causes: - Caste discrimination, illiteracy, etc.
- Quarrel or dispute in Rana family
- Role of King Tribhuwan
- International causes: worldwide wave of democracy, role of India, etc.
A Glimpse of Political revolution of 2007 BS
Though the political consciousness of Nepalese people came very late, they had been awaken to social reform for some time. During the regime of Bhim Shamser, Ramesh Bikram Shah, Maina Bahadur, Khadgamansingh Basnet, Ranga Nath Sharma and others tried to organize a political called “Prachanda Gorkha” with the view of reforms. During the regime Juddha Shamser a political organization called “Nagarik Adhikar Samitee” was established and it worked secretly. The successful struggle of Inda encouraged Nepalese youths to come forward to throw off autocratic Rana rule in Nepal. So they formed “Nepal Praja Parishad” and leading members were Dharma Bhakta Mathema, Tanka Prasad Acharya, Dasharath Chand, Ramhari Sharma, and others.
All the members of Praja Parishad were arrested in the month of kartik 2007 BS. In the Month of Magh 2007 Shukraraj Shastri and Dharma Bhakta Mathema were hanged and Dasharath chand and Gangalal were shot dead. On the 15th kartik 2003 BS Nepal National congress was established in beneras through the effort of BP Koirala to run the political revolution. In 2004 BS the workers in the Biratnagar Jute Mills started strike. They were encouraged by the Nepali National Congress. The government sent a force 205 soldiers to deal with the strikers and arrested some leaders. In the meantime the cadres of National congress held a meeting in Kolkata and decided to continue the strike and launched countrywide movement.
Another political party Nepal Prajatantra Congress was formed I Kolkata. Towards the end of 2005 BS Nepal Prajatantra congress made a plan to launch a countrywide political movement. In the next year representatives of both Nepal National congress and Nepal prajaatantra Congress made a joint meeting in Kolkata. In this meeting they decided that both parties merged into one party “Nepali Congress”. Then Nepali Congress launched armed revolution against Rana rule from the conference of Bairganiya. On the 21st kartik 2007 BS King Tribhuwan left his palace with his family and sought asylum in the Indian embassy. Mohan Shamser did best to turn him back but King did not accept.
After the step King Tribhuwan, Prime Minister Mohan Shamser declared the king’s abdication and placed 3 years old infant grandson Gyanendra on the throne. Such activities of Royal palace added fuel to the burning flame of political revolution. On 15th Kartik 2007 BS the Liberation Force of Nepali congress led by the Thir Bom Malla and Purna singh attacked on Birjung and captured it but next day Thir Bom Malla was killed in action. The armed revolution was spreading. The Rana Rule ended on 7th falgun with the agreement of Delhi. On this day a cabinet of 10 members was formed in which 5 members were from Rana and 5 Members were from the Nepali Congress.
Political History after 2007 BS.
After Rana Rule
After the resignation of Mohan Shamser, Matrika Prasad Koirala became the prime minister of Nepal. The new government tried to establish an auditor’s general office for the auditing of national budget, the public service commission, an independent supreme court etc. Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah became the king of Nepal in 2011. King Mahendra formed a Royal Advisory government under the chairmanship of Sardar Gungman Singh on 1st Bishakh 2012with five members. But this lasted up to 12th Magh 2012. King Mahendra announced 13 points declaration on 17th Bhadara 2012 which was related to Land.
This announce had following objectives:
- Recommendation of quality crop.
- Kut to be paid by the tenants.
- Fixation of interest rate in agricultural loan which should not be more than 10 % per year.
- Prohibition of all type of feudal labour.
- Protection of tenancy right.
- Tax on Birtaa land etc.
- King Mahendra invited the leaders of different political parties and asked them to form a council of minister by mutual agreement and cooperation. But they could not come to agreement among themselves. Due to this disagreement, council of ministers could not be formed many months. Ultimately king Mahendra appointed Tanka Prasad Acharya as the prime minister of Nepal.
- The main responsibility of Acharya’s government was to conduct general election. But the government could not fix the date for the general election on time according to the desire of the King and Tanka prasad Acharya gave resignation from the prime minister ship.
- The King again requested political parties to make coalition government. When the king did not find the chance of it, he invited Dr. K.I. Singh and asked him to form a ministry within 15 days a cabinet headed by Dr. K.I. Singh was formed on the 11th Shrwan 2014 BS.
- There were 11 members in the cabinet headed by Dr. KI Singh.
- The Nepali congress, the praja parishad, and others made united front and began to raise their voice against Dr. K.I. Singh.
- They demanded that there should be a general election on a fixed date. But the prime minister saw that election on time was not possible due to various political causes. So he resigned from the prime minister ship.
- Thereafter on the 4th Jestha 2015 a council of minister was formed under the leadership of Subarna Shamser.
- The government conducted the general election in 2015. In this election Nepali congress got a majority and BP Koirala became the prime minister of Nepal.
- King Mahendra was closely watching and studying the bad state of the country and counting the blundering step of the congress government. On 1st paush 2017 BS king Mahendra took the historic step exercising his power given by the clause 55 of the constitution, he arrested the ministers including prime minister, dissolved parliament, and took the reins of government in his own hand. He declared the panchayat system.
- King Mahendra took another step to abolish the system of feudal states and freed the people there from the unnecessary bondage.
- In order to facilitate development work in the country the kingdom was divided into 14 Zones and 75 district during his regime.
- He brought land reform act in 2021 BS. It was based on the suggestions of various land reforms commissions.
- During his regime East-west highway was constructed.
- On 20th chaitra 2019 King Mahendra formed Panchyat cabinet from among the elected members of Panchyat and Tulasi Giri was the chairman. King Mahendra tried to build Nepal from below and bring the Campaign of Gaun Pharka (Back to Village).
- When King Mahendra died on 17th Magh 2028 due to heart attack, Birendra Bikram shah became the king of Nepal.
- On the 14th Baishkh 2029, King Birendra formed a council of minister under the chairman ship of Kirtinidhi Bista.
- King Birendra declared Nepal as a peace Zone.
- Banned political parties were conducting movement against autocratic panchyat system and movement was becoming strong day by day.
- As a result of political movement and student movement king Birendra was compelled to declare referendum in 2036 BS.
- Political parties were against the party less panchayat system.
- The referendum was held on 20th Baishakh and in this referendum amended Panchayat system got a majority.
- A great people movement took place against party less panchayat system by political parties, civil society and common people.
- This movement was successful on 26th chaitra 2046 and King Birendra dissolved the party less Panchayat rule and restore the multiparty democracy.
- The general election on 29th Baishakh 2048 and the Nepali congress got a majority and Girija Prasad Koirala became the prime minister of Nepal.
- The first Local level election was held in 2049 BS.
- After the restoration of multiparty democracy the condition of Nepal remained same as before.
- CPN (Maoist) launched a revolution called people war on 2nd falgun 2052 BS. The revolution was going to reach in its climax. They claimed that 80% territories of Nepal under their control. They instituted parallel administration and court to provide up to date administrative service and justice.
- The royal massacre happened on 19th Jestha 2058 BS and all the family members of King Birendra were killed in that incidence.
- After the death of Birendra his eldest son Dipendra who was in coma made King but he was died and Gynendra became the King of Nepal.
- On the 4th October 2002, king Gyanendra dissolved the councils of ministers and the leadership of council of ministers was under the Sher Bahadur Deuba.
- King Gyanendra appointed Lokendra Bahadur Chand and Surya Bahadur Thapa as the prime minister of Nepal respectively after the steps king. Later he himself became the leader of council of Ministers.
- After the establishment of Monarchial rule, the seven Political parties and CPN (Maoist) had made the 12 points agreement and they started the 2nd people movements jointly.
- In April 2006, another people’s movement was launched jointly by the democratic parties focusing on Kathmandu, which led to a 19-day curfew imposed by the king. People Movement of 2062/063 lasted 19 days and King Gyanendra restored the multiparty system.
- After the success of 2nd People movement the King Gyanendra compelled the leave the throne on 15th Jestha 2065 BS and he became the last king of Nepal and Shah Dynasty.
- On 21st November 2006, Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala and Maoist Chairman Prachanda signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) 2006, committing to democracy and peace for the progress of the country and people. The king was removed and the decade long Maoist war on the state came to an end.
- Political parties agreed to conduct election of constitutional assembly but first assembly could not make constitution.
- Second constitution Assembly made a constitution of Nepal which was declared on 3rd Aswin 2072 BS and rule of Nepal at present is conduction according to the constitution of 2072.
- A constituent assembly election was held on 10th April 2008. And on 28th May 2008, the newly elected constituent Assembly declared Nepal a Federal Democratic Republic, abolishing the 240 year-old monarchy. Nepal today has a president as head of state and a constitutionally elected Prime Minister heading the Government.
Present Condition of Nepal
Nepal is a federal republic comprising 7 provinces. Each province is composed of 8 to 14 districts. The districts, in turn, comprise local units known as urban and rural municipalities. There is a total of 753 local units which includes 6 metropolitan municipalities, 11 sub-metropolitan municipalities and 276 municipalities for a total of 293 urban municipalities, and 460 rural municipalities. Each local unit is composed of wards. There are 6,743 wards in total.
The local governments enjoy executive and legislative as well as limited judicial powers in their local jurisdiction. The provinces have unicameral parliamentary Westminster system of governance. The local and provincial governments exercise some absolute powers and some powers shared with provincial and/or federal government. The district coordination committee, a committee composed of all elected officials from the local governments in the district, has a very limited role.