Meaning of Agriculture

Agriculture refers to the production of food and livestock by using the land and forest. Nepalese economy is based on agriculture. It is predominantly an agricultural country. Thus, the role of agriculture in economic development of country cannot be underestimated.

Features of Nepalese Agriculture 


  • Subsistence oriented agriculture.
  • Dominance of food production rather than cash crops
  • Dual ownership of Land
  • Traditional technology based agriculture.
  • Monsoon Based agriculture
  • Low productivity etc.
  • Inadequate investment from the governmental and private sectors
  • Small size of land holding
  • Primitive organizations etc.

Status of Nepali agriculture


  • According to economic survey 2077/78 Agriculture contribution in GDP was 25.8 in the fiscal year 2077/2078.
  • Annual growth rate of agricultural sector will be 2.27 percent in the current fiscal years.
  • From two decades the growth of Nepali agricultural production is 3.2 percent per year.
  • Food grains are: paddy, wheat, maize, millet, barley etc.

Status of Cash crops

Description

2013/14

2014/14

Area

Sugarcane

3020

3063

66.6

Oilseed

184

194.54

217.22

Tobacco

2.2

2.23

1.72

Potato

2817.51

2842

190.23

Jute

15.75

16.53

11.4

Other production

Other crops

2013/14

2014/15

Pulses

2817.51

2842

Fruits

965.04

1186.37

Vegetable

3472.06

3629

Total

7254.62

7657.37

Livestock production

Description

2013/14

2014/15

Milk and Milk product

170

172.48

Meat

298.24

300.90

Egg (in Million)

872.92

899.50

Fish

65.77

69.4

 

Role of Agriculture in Economic development


Source of Livelihood: - It is the source of livelihood of Nepali society. Most of Nepalese people are dependent on agriculture for their income and employment. It has provided employment to more than 66 percent of the labor force.

Source of Food: - Agriculture is the main source of food for Nepali people. It supplies food for growing population.

Source of National income: - In Nepal, agriculture is the source of national income. The agricultural sector contributed 28.8 percent annually to GDP of the country.

Source of raw material: - Agriculture helps to the industrialization of the country. It provides raw materials to the agricultural based industries. It supplies tobacco, tea, jute, grain, milk, skin, wool etc to industries.

Source of Foreign Trade: - The main basis of export in Nepal is the agriculture production. We export mainly rice, jute, jute production, herbs, oilseed, Pulses etc.

Source of Public revenue: - Agriculture is a source of public revenue in Nepal. Government receives the registration and land revenue, revenue from the export of agricultural goods.

Other role: - Supports development of other sectors.

Challenges or problems In Agriculture Sector 


  • Pressure of population on Land on Terai district and lack of agricultural labor in Hilly region.
  • Tradition technology
  • Inadequate irrigation facilities
  • Extreme poverty
  • Lack of market
  • Land fragmentation
  • Lack of storage facilities
  • Lack of agricultural research
  • Low productivity etc.