List the Coffman’s conditions that lead to a deadlock.

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Operating System

 A deadlock situation can arise if and only if all of the following conditions hold simultaneously in a system:

  • Mutual Exclusion: At least one resource must be non-shareable. Only one process can use the resource at any given instant of time.
  • Hold and Wait or Resource Holding: A process is currently holding at least one resource and requesting additional resources which are being held by other processes.
  • No Preemption: The operating system must not de-allocate resources once they have been allocated; they must be released by the holding process voluntarily.
  • Circular Wait: A process must be waiting for a resource which is being held by another process, which in turn is waiting for the first process to release the resource. In general, there is a set of waiting processes, P = {P1, P2, ..., PN}, such that P1 is waiting for a resource held by P2, P2 is waiting for a resource held by P3 and so on till PN is waiting for a resource held by P1.

These four conditions are known as the Coffman conditions from their first description in a 1971 article by Edward G. Coffman.

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