Here we learn about the What is Management? Definitions Meaning and Features of the Management. Every human being has several needs and desires. But no one can fulfill all their needs alone.
Therefore, people work groups to meet their mutual needs. Moreover, man is a social being, who likes to live and work in a group. Groups can achieve their goals only if the efforts of people working together are properly coordinated and controlled.
Thus, the task of achieving goals through coordination and control of other people’s activities is known as management.
Peter Drucker believes that management work is to make people productive. Managerial efficiency is essential for, becoming competitive in the national and international area.
The word ‘management’ can be explained as ‘manage-men-t’ It means managing men tactfully to get things done. In order for men, one has to understand the unpredictable human nature tactfully. Hence, it is very complicated and challenging manage activity.
The word management is defined in many ways. Views differ on the subject and it is difficult to find out any uniformity among them. Some define management as a process comprising specific functions such as planning, organizing staffing, leading, and controlling.
Management is also a discipline, which involves the study of certain principles and pr are also persons who regard management as a group of the person charged with the responsibility of running a business.
What is Management? Definitions
Some of the important definitions of management are given below:
(1) Harold Koontz: Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups
(2) S. George: Management consists of getting things one through others. The manager is one who accomplishes the objectives by directing the efforts of others.
Meaning of Management
The Humann has analyzed the term management in three senses/concepts:
- as a process
- as a discipline
- as a noun.
Here, we shall briefly explain each of these.
Many Scholars have defined management as a process. When used a process, management refers to the series of interrelated functions, which are performed by managers to make productive use of materials and human resources.
The process engagement involves the determination of objectives and putting them into action. Hence, management is the process of planning organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling the efforts of of an organizational members to accomplish the objectives organization.
Management process is not a series of separate mutually independent functions. In practice, a manager oft performs many of these functions simultaneously.
This concept most popular and appropriate because management is what th managers do. It has the following advantages:
- It is very simple and easy to understand
- It indicates the functions of management
- It recognizes management as a universal process
2. Management as a Discipline
A discipline may be defined as a branch of knowledge or subject of instruction. When used as discipline, management is a specialized branch of human knowledge, which involves the study of principles and practices of management.
It is a subject of study which is now formally taught in campuses and universities Management has acquired the status of a discipline because of the following two reasons.
- The scholars in the field of management are carrying out a lot of research. The results of the research will be useful for future managers.
- It is a the socialized body of knowledge, which is studied and practiced in management institutions.
Management is comparatively new discipline but it growing at a great pace. As a discipline, the popularity of management can be judged by the huge crowd for admission in institutions which provide education and training in management.
It is an applied discipline, which is inter-disciplinary in nature because it involves the study and application of knowledge drawn from Economics, Mathematics, Psychology, Sociology, and other disciplines.
With the increasing size of the organizations, growing specialization. sophisticated technology, cut throat competition, and other challenges, the importance of management as a discipline is growing
3. Management as a Noun
When management is used as a noun, it refers to all managerial personnel of an organization who have policy making supervisory and controlling responsibility for achieving organizational goals.
It is a collective noun consisting of Board of Directors, Managing Director, General Manager, Department Heads. Supervisors, etc.
Thus, when we say management of Himalayan Bank is good. we are referring the persons who are managing the organization. It may be said that all those who direct the work of others are part of management.
There are some that describe management as a technique of leadership and decision making or a means of coordination Though used in different senses, the term management as a process is most popular.
Drucker stress three jobs of management:
- managing a business
- managing a manager. and
- managing workers and work
Even if one is omitted, we would not have management any more and we also would not have a business enterprise or an industrial society.
The manager requires balancing and harmonizing three major function of business enterprise. Hence, a the manager is dynamic and life giving element in every business.
Without efficient management, we cannot secure the best allocation and utilization of human, material, and financial resources.
An analysis of the above definitions makes it clear that management has been viewed differently stressing on the different aspect of management. However, it is clear that management is a
the process of getting things done through others to attain organizational goals
In its broadest sense, management can be regarded as:
- Formulation of plans, policies and programmers,
- Securing men, material and machinery cheaply,
- Putting all of them into operation through the sound organization,
- Leading and the men at work
- Supervising and controlling their performance
- Providing maximum satisfaction and service to employer, employees and public at large
In short, “Management is managing people and other resources in the organization for achieving the goals of the organization.”
It is nothing but managing people with tact and managing people for achieving goals.
The concept of management exists in all organizations seeking to attain goals. The nature of management varies, but all organizations have a managerial structure
Features or Characteristics of Management
An analysis of the above definitions of management reveals certain features and characteristics of management. Such features are as follows
Management is a means to achieve predetermined goals. All managerial activities are systematically directed in the accomplishment of such goals.
Management has no justification to exist without goals. Effective management is always management by objective.
The basic goal of management is to maximize the efficiency and economy of human efforts. The success of management is measured to the extent that the targets achieved are achieved. Therefore, management is goal-oriented.
2) Management is a Group Activity
Management cannot be done in isolation. It always refers to Whenever there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management becomes essential.
A group can achieve the goals or objectives of an organization more easily and effectively than a person.
3) It is a Distinct Process
Management is a distinct process performed to accomplish organizational goals by the use of human and material resources.
4) Management is a Universal Activity
Management is required in all types of organization. Wherever there is a human activity there is a management.
The basic principles of management are applicable in business as well in other organizations. These principles are flexible and are modified according to the needs and environment of the organization
5) Management is an Integrating Process
The essence of management is the integration of human and other resources for effective performance. It integrates men’s, machines and materials in order to achieve set goals.
The responsibility of management is welding the three factor men, methods and machinery into a single working facto.
6) Management is a Social Process
Management is a social process because it consists of getting things done through others. This involves dealing with people.
The efforts of human beings have to be directed, coordinated and regulated by management. Apart from this, management has a social obligation to maximize the use of rare resources for the benefit of the community.
7) Management is Both Science and Art
Management is a science because it has developed certain principles that are of universal application.
It is also an art because management results depend on the individual skills of managers. The manager’s art is essential to make the best management science. Therefore, it is both science and art.
8) Management is a Profession
Management is now regarded as a profession. It has a systematic and specialized body of knowledge, principles and techniques, which can be taught along with practice.
With the increase in joint stock companies, and multinationals, management has been entrusted to the management of professional managers.
9) Management is Multidisciplinary Discipline
Management draws knowledge and concepts from other disciplines such as economics, psychology, sociology, statistical operation research, etc.
Management integrates ideas and concepts taken from other disciplines and uses them in organization management.
10) Management is Intangible
Management is unseen forces but its results are apparent. The effectiveness of management is judged on the basis of the final results, although operations can not be seen.
11) Management is Dynamic
Management is a dynamic function and it has to be performed continuously. It operates in an ever-changing environment. Management adapts itself to environmental changes and also introduces innovation in methodology.