# Explain the concept of bit plane coding method.

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### Bit-Plane Coding:

An effective technique for reducing an image's interpixel redundancies is to process the image's bit planes individually. The technique, called bit-plane coding, is based on the concept of decomposing a multilevel (monochrome or color) image into a series of binary images and compressing each binary image via one of several well-known binary compression methods.

### Bit-plane decomposition:

The gray levels of an m-bit gray-scale image can be represented in the form of the base 2 polynomial Based on this property, a simple method of decomposing the image into a collection of binary images is to separate the m coefficients of the polynomial into m 1-bit bit planes. The zeroth- order bit plane is generated by collecting the a0 bits of each pixel, while the (m - 1) st-order bit plane contains the am-1, bits or coefficients. In general, each bit plane is numbered from 0 to m-1 and is constructed by setting its pixels equal to the values of the appropriate bits or polynomial coefficients from each pixel in the original image. The inherent disadvantage of this approach is that small changes in gray level can have a significant impact on the complexity of the bit planes. If a pixel of intensity 127 (01111111) is adjacent to a pixel of intensity 128 (10000000), for instance, every bit plane will contain a corresponding 0 to 1 (or 1 to 0) transition. For example, as the most significant bits of the two binary codes for 127 and 128 are different, bit plane 7 will contain a zero-valued pixel next to a pixel of value 1, creating a 0 to 1 (or 1 to 0) transition at that point.

An alternative decomposition approach (which reduces the effect of small gray-level variations) is to first represent the image by an m-bit Gray code. The m-bit Gray code gm-1... g2g1g0 that corresponds to the polynomial in Eq. above can be computed from Here, Ⓒ denotes the exclusive OR operation. This code has the unique property that successive code words differ in only one bit position. Thus, small changes in gray level are less likely to

affect all m bit planes. For instance, when gray levels 127 and 128 are adjacent, only the 7th bit plane will contain a 0 to 1 transition, because the Gray codes that correspond to 127 and 128 are 11000000 and 01000000, respectively.

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